Carbohydrate Restriction has a More Favorable Impact on the Metabolic Syndrome than a Low Fat Diet

  title={Carbohydrate Restriction has a More Favorable Impact on the Metabolic Syndrome than a Low Fat Diet},
  author={Jeff S Volek and Stephen D. Phinney and Cassandra E. Forsythe and Erin Elizabeth Quann and Richard James Wood and Michael Joseph Puglisi and William J. Kraemer and Douglas M. Bibus and Maria Luz Fern{\'a}ndez and Richard D. Feinman},
We recently proposed that the biological markers improved by carbohydrate restriction were precisely those that define the metabolic syndrome (MetS), and that the common thread was regulation of insulin as a control element. We specifically tested the idea with a 12-week study comparing two hypocaloric diets (~1,500 kcal): a carbohydrate-restricted diet (CRD) (%carbohydrate:fat:protein = 12:59:28) and a low-fat diet (LFD) (56:24:20) in 40 subjects with atherogenic dyslipidemia. Both… 

Effects of dietary carbohydrate restriction versus low-fat diet on flow-mediated dilation.

Carbohydrate restriction, as a first-line dietary intervention, effectively reduces biomarkers of metabolic syndrome in Emirati adults.

Results from this study suggest that a 6-wk CRD can effectively be used as a first-line diet therapy to rapidly improve features of MetS and cardiovascular risk in adult Emirati.

Comparative Effects of Carbohydrate versus Fat Restriction on Serum Levels of Adipocytokines, Markers of Inflammation, and Endothelial Function among Women with the Metabolic Syndrome: A Randomized Cross-Over Clinical Trial

Partial replacement of dietary carbohydrates by unsaturated fats prevents the increased levels of markers of systemic inflammation among women with the MetS.

The Effects of a Low Calorie Ketogenic Diet on Glycaemic Control Variables in Hyperinsulinemic Overweight/Obese Females

The 12-week LCKD intervention changed the glucose control variables, body mass, as well as waist, hip and thigh circumferences, and a low-calorie ketogenic diet may be recommended for adult females with glucose control variable disturbance and excess body mass.

Limited Effect of Dietary Saturated Fat on Plasma Saturated Fat in the Context of a Low Carbohydrate Diet

Findings are consistent with the concept that dietary saturated fat is efficiently metabolized in the presence of low carbohydrate, and that a CRD results in better preservation of plasma ARA.

Low-Carbohydrate High-Fat (LCHF) Diet: Evidence of Its Benefits

This chapter focuses on basic physiology and metabolism of carbohydrate and fat content in normal and diabetic patients and a review of the literature on these two diet combinations with current thoughts and evidence on this core issue affecting insulin utilization and metabolic profile.

The Effect of Dietary Carbohydrate and Fat Manipulation on the Metabolome and Markers of Glucose and Insulin Metabolism: A Randomised Parallel Trial

Both diets may reduce type 2 diabetes risk albeit, a LCHF diet may enhance insulin sensitivity by increasing lipid oxidation and an upregulation in lipid metabolites following the LCHf diet may indicate an increase in lipid transport and oxidation, improving insulin sensitivity.

Low-Fat Versus Low-Carbohydrate Weight Reduction Diets

This study demonstrates comparable effects on insulin resistance of low-fat and low-carbohydrate diets independent of macronutrient content, and indicates a significant decrease in augmentation index following theLow-fat diet, compared with a nonsignificant increase within the low- carbohydrate group.

A Low Glycemic Index Diet Combined with an Aerobic-Resistance Exercise Program Reduces Risk Factors Associated with the Metabolic Syndrome

The LGI diet and exercise program had a greater ability to reduce the number and severity of CVD risk factors in individuals with MetS, and represents valuable knowledge from which future lifestyle interventions can be developed to reduced the incidence of MetS and the development ofCVD.



Carbohydrate restriction improves the features of Metabolic Syndrome. Metabolic Syndrome may be defined by the response to carbohydrate restriction

It is felt that MetS is a meaningful, useful phenomenon and may, in fact, be operationally defined as the set of markers that responds to CHO restriction, and may provide a new experimental criterion for MetS in the face of on-going controversy about a useful definition.

Comparison of Low Fat and Low Carbohydrate Diets on Circulating Fatty Acid Composition and Markers of Inflammation

A very low carbohydrate diet resulted in profound alterations in fatty acid composition and reduced inflammation compared to a low fat diet, and consistently inversely associated with responses in inflammatory proteins.

Carbohydrate restriction and cardiovascular risk

It seems appropriate to consider carbohydrate reduction as a useful, if not the preferred, alternative to low-fat diets, which have met with limited success.

Separate effects of reduced carbohydrate intake and weight loss on atherogenic dyslipidemia.

Moderate carbohydrate restriction and weight loss provide equivalent but nonadditive approaches to improving atherogenic dyslipidemia.

A ketogenic diet favorably affects serum biomarkers for cardiovascular disease in normal-weight men.

The results suggest that a short-term ketogenic diet does not have a deleterious effect on CVD risk profile and may improve the lipid disorders characteristic of atherogenic dyslipidemia.

Dietary carbohydrate restriction in type 2 diabetes mellitus and metabolic syndrome: time for a critical appraisal

The argument is made that a re-evaluation of the role of carbohydrate restriction, the historical and intuitive approach to the problem, may provide an alternative and possibly superior dietary strategy that improves glycemic control and reduces insulin fluctuations which are primary targets.

The Effects of Low-Carbohydrate versus Conventional Weight Loss Diets in Severely Obese Adults: One-Year Follow-up of a Randomized Trial

The findings 1 year after randomization to a low-carbohydrate diet versus a high-fat weight loss diet (conventional diet) in severely obese adults with a high prevalence of diabetes or the metabolic syndrome are reported.

A low-carbohydrate/high-fat diet improves glucoregulation in type 2 diabetes mellitus by reducing postabsorptive glycogenolysis.

It is concluded that short-term variations in dietary carbohydrate to fat ratios affect basal glucose metabolism in people with type 2 diabetes merely through modulation of the rate of glycogenolysis, without affecting insulin sensitivity of glucose metabolism.

Weight loss with a low-carbohydrate, Mediterranean, or low-fat diet.

The absence of biologically significant weight loss (2 to 4% after 2 years) highlights the fact that energy restriction and weight loss in themselves may minimally affect metabolic outcomes and that lifestyle changes must incorporate physical activity to optimize the reduction in the risk of chronic disease.