Capturing the superorganism: a formal theory of group adaptation

@article{Gardner2009CapturingTS,
  title={Capturing the superorganism: a formal theory of group adaptation},
  author={Andy Gardner and Alan Grafen},
  journal={Journal of Evolutionary Biology},
  year={2009},
  volume={22}
}
Adaptation is conventionally regarded as occurring at the level of the individual organism. However, in recent years there has been a revival of interest in the possibility for group adaptations and superorganisms. Here, we provide the first formal theory of group adaptation. In particular: (1) we clarify the distinction between group selection and group adaptation, framing the former in terms of gene frequency change and the latter in terms of optimization; (2) we capture the superorganism in… 
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