Captive Bears in Human–Animal Welfare Conflict: A Case Study of Bile Extraction on Asia’s Bear Farms

@article{Kikuchi2012CaptiveBI,
  title={Captive Bears in Human–Animal Welfare Conflict: A Case Study of Bile Extraction on Asia’s Bear Farms},
  author={Ryunosuke Kikuchi},
  journal={Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics},
  year={2012},
  volume={25},
  pages={55-77}
}
  • R. Kikuchi
  • Published 1 February 2012
  • Biology
  • Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics
Bear bile has long been used in the Asian traditional pharmacopoeia. Bear farming first started in China ~30 years ago in terms of reducing the number of poached bears and ensuring the supply of bear bile. Approximately 13,000 bears are today captivated on Asia’s bear farms: their teeth are broken and the claws are also pulled out for the sake of human safety; the bears are imprisoned in squeeze cages for years; and a catheter is daily inserted into a bear’s gall bladder or a tube is implanted… 
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