Capacity for Self-Recognition in Differentially Reared Chimpanzees

  title={Capacity for Self-Recognition in Differentially Reared Chimpanzees},
  author={Gordon G. Jr. Gallup and Michael K. McClure and Suzanne D. Hill and Rosalie A. Bundy},
  journal={The Psychological Record},
By way of replicating previous work, wild-born chimpanzees given prolonged exposure to mirrors learned to recognize their own reflections. Chimpanzees born in captivity and reared in social isolation did not, however, show behaviors suggestive of self-recognition. The results have possible implications for a theory which proposes that self-concepts arise out of interpersonal relationships. 
Failure to demonstrate self‐recognition in gorillas
Positive findings, after extensive mirror exposure, suggest that the gorilla may be the only great ape which lacks the conceptual ability necessary for self‐recognition.
Long‐term retention of self‐recognition by chimpanzees
The chimpanzee's self‐awareness, as inferred from its self‐recognition, appears to be a stable characteristic of the animal.
Toward a Comparative Psychology of Self-Awareness: Species Limitations and Cognitive Consequences
The first published report of mirror self-recognition in a nonhuman appeared in the literature several decades ago and positive results have only been obtained with humans, chimpanzees, and orangutans.
Development of self-recognition in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes).
The results suggest that self-recognition occurs at a slightly older age in chimpanzees than in human infants, and conform to the general pattern that great apes exhibit many cognitive skills comparable to those of 2-year-old humans.
Self-Recognition in Chimpanzees and Man: A Developmental and Comparative Perspective
The concept of self has not only been held to be uniquely human, but essential to the beginnings of effective social and intellectual functioning in the growing child. While the self has been and
Chimpanzees recognize themselves in mirrors
New analytical techniques are reported that falsify the central predictions generated by the account of chimpanzees’ reactions to mirrors and confirm predictions derived from the self-recognition model.
Self-recognition in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes): distribution, ontogeny, and patterns of emergence
: Investigations of mirror self-recognition (SR) in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) have had small samples and divergent methods. In Experiment 1, 105 chimpanzees (10 months to 40 years of age) were
Self-recognition in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes): distribution, ontogeny, and patterns of emergence.
Results suggest that SR typically emerges at 4.5-8 years of age, at the population level the capacity declines in adulthood, and in group settings SR typically occurs within minutes of a subject's exposure to a mirror.
Self recognition in primates: A comparative approach to the bidirectional properties of consciousness.
A technique is described in which organisms are provided with extended exposure to mirrors and then given an explicit test of self-recognition (accomplished through the unobtrusive application of


Chimpanzees: Self-Recognition
After prolonged exposure to their reflected images in mirrors, chimpanzees marked with red dye showed evidence of being able to recognize their own reflections. Monkeys did not appear to have this
Mirror Display in the Squirrel Monkey, Saimiri sciureus
Male squirrel monkeys may display the erect phallus under various conditions of courtship, aggression, and salutation. One variety will display consistently to its reflection in a mirror. Such
Human nature and the social order
This work remains a pioneer sociological treatise on American culture. By understanding the individual not as the product of society but as its mirror image, Cooley concludes that the social order
Mirror-image stimulation.
  • G. Gallup
  • Psychology, Medicine
    Psychological bulletin
  • 1968