Capacity for Self-Recognition in Differentially Reared Chimpanzees

@article{Gallup1971CapacityFS,
  title={Capacity for Self-Recognition in Differentially Reared Chimpanzees},
  author={Gordon G. Jr. Gallup and Michael K. McClure and Suzanne D. Hill and Rosalie A. Bundy},
  journal={The Psychological Record},
  year={1971},
  volume={21},
  pages={69-74}
}
By way of replicating previous work, wild-born chimpanzees given prolonged exposure to mirrors learned to recognize their own reflections. Chimpanzees born in captivity and reared in social isolation did not, however, show behaviors suggestive of self-recognition. The results have possible implications for a theory which proposes that self-concepts arise out of interpersonal relationships. 
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The chimpanzee's self‐awareness, as inferred from its self‐recognition, appears to be a stable characteristic of the animal.
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The concept of self has not only been held to be uniquely human, but essential to the beginnings of effective social and intellectual functioning in the growing child. While the self has been and
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New analytical techniques are reported that falsify the central predictions generated by the account of chimpanzees’ reactions to mirrors and confirm predictions derived from the self-recognition model.
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: Investigations of mirror self-recognition (SR) in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) have had small samples and divergent methods. In Experiment 1, 105 chimpanzees (10 months to 40 years of age) were
Self-recognition in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes): distribution, ontogeny, and patterns of emergence.
TLDR
Results suggest that SR typically emerges at 4.5-8 years of age, at the population level the capacity declines in adulthood, and in group settings SR typically occurs within minutes of a subject's exposure to a mirror.
Self recognition in primates: A comparative approach to the bidirectional properties of consciousness.
A technique is described in which organisms are provided with extended exposure to mirrors and then given an explicit test of self-recognition (accomplished through the unobtrusive application of
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