Cannabis use and risk of psychotic or affective mental health outcomes: a systematic review

@article{Moore2007CannabisUA,
  title={Cannabis use and risk of psychotic or affective mental health outcomes: a systematic review},
  author={Theresa Hm Moore and Stanley Zammit and Anne Lingford-Hughes and Thomas R. E. Barnes and Peter B. Jones and Margaret Burke and Glyn Lewis},
  journal={The Lancet},
  year={2007},
  volume={370},
  pages={319-328}
}
Effects of cannabis use on outcomes of psychotic disorders: systematic review
TLDR
Confidence that most associations reported were specifically due to cannabis is low, and it remains important to establish whether cannabis is harmful, what outcomes are particularly susceptible, and how such effects are mediated.
Does giving up substance use work for patients with psychosis? A systematic meta-analysis
TLDR
It is suggested that substance use contributes to both the symptoms and the burden of disability experienced by patients with psychosis.
Cannabis Use and the Risk for Psychosis and Affective Disorders
TLDR
The evidence that heavy use of high-THC/low-CBD types of cannabis increases the risk of psychosis is sufficiently strong to merit public health education and the possibility that CBD may be therapeutically useful.
An overview of systematic reviews on cannabis and psychosis: discussing apparently conflicting results.
TLDR
It is concluded that there is insufficient knowledge to determine the level of risk associated with cannabis use in relation to psychotic symptoms and that more information is needed on both the risks of cannabis use and the benefits of preventive interventions to support evidence-based approaches.
Meta-analysis of the Association Between the Level of Cannabis Use and Risk of Psychosis.
TLDR
Current evidence shows that high levels of cannabis use increase the risk of psychotic outcomes and confirms a dose-response relationship between the level of use and the risk for psychosis, and sufficient evidence to justify harm reduction prevention programs.
[Cannabis and mood].
TLDR
The relationship between cannabis use and mood changes are observed both in the epidemiological research and in the clinical settings.
Cannabis and Psychosis: A Review of the Risk Factors Involved
TLDR
A significant inverse relationship exists between cannabidiol (CBD) and psychosis: cannabodiol is associated with less psychotic symptoms and manifests antipsychotic properties.
Risk-thresholds for the association between frequency of cannabis use and the development of psychosis: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
TLDR
Individuals using cannabis frequently are at increased risk of psychosis, with no significant risk associated with less frequent use, which should be refined through further work.
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References

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TLDR
The available evidence supports the hypothesis that cannabis is an independent risk factor for psychosis and the development of psychotic symptoms, particularly in vulnerable populations, and is likely to have beneficial effects on psychiatric morbidity.
Cannabis use and psychosis: a longitudinal population-based study.
TLDR
Results confirm previous suggestions that cannabis use increases the risk of both the incidence of psychosis in psychosis-free persons and a poor prognosis for those with an established vulnerability to psychotic disorder.
P.3.a.031 Prospective cohort study of cannabis use, predisposition for psychosis, and psychotic symptoms in young people
TLDR
Cannabis use moderately increases the risk of psychotic symptoms in young people but has a much stronger effect in those with evidence of predisposition for psychosis.
Causal association between cannabis and psychosis: examination of the evidence
TLDR
Cases of psychotic disorder could be prevented by discouraging cannabis use among vulnerable youths and research is needed to understand the mechanisms by which cannabis causes psychosis.
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TLDR
In participants with no baseline depressive symptoms, those with a diagnosis of cannabis abuse at baseline were four times more likely than those with no cannabis abuse diagnosis to have depressive symptoms at the follow-up assessment, after adjusting for age, gender, antisocial symptoms, and other baseline covariates.
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TLDR
This is the first prospective longitudinal study of adolescent cannabis use as a risk factor for adult schizophreniform disorder, taking into account childhood psychotic symptoms, and the Dunedin multidisciplinary health and development study has a 96% follow up rate at age 26.
Cannabis dependence and psychotic symptoms in young people
TLDR
The results show that the development of cannabis dependence is associated with increased rates of psychotic symptoms in young people even when pre-existing symptoms and other background factors are taken into account.
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TLDR
The present study suggests that the association between cannabis use and psychotic symptoms is unlikely to be due to confounding factors; and the direction of causality is from cannabis use to psychotic symptoms.
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TLDR
Heavy cannabis use and depression are associated and evidence from longitudinal studies suggests that heavy cannabis use may increase depressive symptoms among some users, but it is still too early, however, to rule out the hypothesis that the association is due to common social, family and contextual factors that increase risks of both heavy cannabis Use and depression.
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