Cannabis is more than simply Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol

  title={Cannabis is more than simply $\Delta$9-tetrahydrocannabinol},
  author={Ethan B Russo and John M. McPartland},
In response to your recent publication comparing subjective effects of D9-tetrahydrocannabinol and herbal cannabis (Wachtel et al. 2002), a number of comments are necessary. The first concerns the suitability of the chosen “marijuana” to assay the issues at hand. NIDA cannabis has been previously characterized in a number of studies (Chait and Pierri 1989; Russo et al. 2002), as a crude lowgrade product (2–4% THC) containing leaves, stems and seeds, often 3 or more years old after processing… 

Cannabinoids for the pharmaceutical industry

The potential for interaction and synergy between compounds within the plant, may play a role in the therapeutic potential of cannabis, and why a cannabis-based medicine using extracts containing multiple cannabinoids, in defined ratios, and other non-cannabinoid fractions, may provide better therapeutic success and be better tolerated than the single synthetic cannabinoid medicines currently available.

Cannabis for Medical Use: Versatile Plant Rather Than a Single Drug

How phytocannabinoid profiles differ between plants depending on the chemovar types are discussed, the major factors that affect secondary metabolite accumulation in the plant including the genotype, growth conditions, processing, storage and the delivery route are reviewed, and how these factors make Cannabis treatment highly complex are highlighted.

A pharmacological characterization of Cannabis sativa chemovar extracts

Findings provide only limited support for the entourage hypothesis and further studies are necessary to characterize the nature of these pharmacological differences between cannabis chemovars and pure Δ9-THC.

Evolution and Classification of Cannabis sativa (Marijuana, Hemp) in Relation to Human Utilization

This review examines the evolving ways Cannabis has been used from ancient times to the present, and how human selection has altered the morphology, chemistry, distribution and ecology of domesticated forms by comparison with related wild plants.

Terpenoid Chemoprofiles Distinguish Drug-type Cannabis sativa L. Cultivars in Nevada

It is proposed that three terpenoid cluster assignments account for the diversity of drug type cannabis strains currently being grown in Nevada and are distinguishable by terpene profiles alone.

The development of Sativex® — a natural cannabis-based medicine

Cannabis has been used medicinally for 4000 years [1–4] in a variety of cultures and was re-introduced into British medicine in 1842 by W. O’Shaughnessy [5]. It remained in the British pharmacopaeia

Blunted Psychotomimetic and Amnestic Effects of Δ-9-Tetrahydrocannabinol in Frequent Users of Cannabis

The data suggest that frequent users of cannabis are either inherently blunted in their response to, and/or develop tolerance to the psychotomimetic, perceptual altering, amnestic, endocrine, and other effects of cannabinoids.

Human Cannabinoid Pharmacokinetics

  • M. Huestis
  • Biology, Chemistry
    Chemistry & biodiversity
  • 2007
The cardiovascular and subjective effects of cannabis are blocked by rimonabant, the first CB-1 cannabinoid-receptor antagonist, documenting thatCB-1 receptors mediate these effects of smoked cannabis in humans.

Analgesic Potential of Terpenes Derived from Cannabis sativa

The aim of this review is to summarize the current knowledge about terpene compounds in cannabis and to analyze the available scientific evidence for a role of cannabis-derived terpenes in modern pain management.

The Psychotomimetic Effects of Intravenous Delta-9-Tetrahydrocannabinol in Healthy Individuals: Implications for Psychosis

It is indicated that Δ-9-THC produces a broad range of transient symptoms, behaviors, and cognitive deficits in healthy individuals that resemble some aspects of endogenous psychoses and warrant further study of whether brain cannabinoid receptor function contributes to the pathophysiology of psychotic disorders.



Comparison of the subjective effects of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol and marijuana in humans

The results support the idea that the psychoactive effects of marijuana in healthy volunteers are due primarily to THC.

Activity of cannabis in relation to its delta'-trans-tetrahydro-cannabinol content.

The petroleum spirit extract had a surprisingly high B/C ratio of 23, indicating that a powerful synergist of THC activity is present, and the net effect of the herb and ethanol extracts is probably due to a balance of synergist and inhibitor.

Comparison of the subjective effects of Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol and marijuana in humans.

The results support the idea that the psychoactive effects of marijuana in healthy volunteers are due primarily to THC.


Comparison of the results between the marihuanaas and Δ9‐THC showed that in man and in the laboratory animals marihuanas A and B induced effects two to four times greater than expected from their Δ9-THC content.

Abuse potential of dronabinol (Marinol).

The onset of action is slow and gradual, it is at most only weakly reinforcing, and the overwhelming majority of reports of users indicate that its effects are dysphoric and unappealing, which gives dronabinol a very low abuse potential.

Initial experiences with medicinal extracts of cannabis for chronic pain: Results from 34 ‘N of 1’ studies

A total of 34 ‘N of 1’ studies were undertaken using this novel therapy for patients with chronic, mainly neuropathic, pain and associated symptoms to explore efficacy, tolerability, safety and dosages of CBME.

Cannabis and Cannabis Extracts: Greater Than the Sum of Their Parts?

Good evidence shows that secondary compounds in cannabis may enhance the beneficial effects of THC, and other cannabinoid and non-cannabinoid compounds in herbal cannabis or its extracts may reduce THC-induced anxiety, cholinergic deficits, and immunosuppression.

Prospects for New Cannabis-Based Prescription Medicines

A new generation of cannabis based medicinal products takes advantage of increasing understanding of the mode of action of cannabinoids, evidence-based research on clinical uses and new technology for realization of products, in anti-diversionary presenta...

The nonpsychoactive cannabis constituent cannabidiol is an oral anti-arthritic therapeutic in murine collagen-induced arthritis.

Data show that CBD, through its combined immunosuppressive and anti-inflammatory actions, has a potent anti-arthritic effect in CIA.

Myrcene mimics the peripheral analgesic activity of lemongrass tea.