Cannabis and anxiety: a critical review of the evidence

  title={Cannabis and anxiety: a critical review of the evidence},
  author={Jos{\'e} Alexandre S. Crippa and Antonio Waldo Zuardi and Roc{\'i}o Mart{\'i}n-Santos and Sagnik Bhattacharyya and Zerrin Atakan and Philip K. McGuire and Paolo Fusar-Poli},
  journal={Human Psychopharmacology: Clinical and Experimental},
Anxiety reactions and panic attacks are the acute symptoms most frequently associated with cannabis use. Understanding the relationship between cannabis and anxiety may clarify the mechanism of action of cannabis and the pathophysiology of anxiety. Aims of the present study were to review the nature of the relationship between cannabis use and anxiety, as well as the possible clinical, diagnostic and causal implications. 

Cannabidiol for the treatment of cannabis withdrawal syndrome: a case report

Cannabis withdrawal in heavy users is commonly followed by increased anxiety, insomnia, loss of appetite, migraine, irritability, restlessness and other physical and psychological signs.

Cannabis Use in Patients Seeking Therapy for Anxiety and Related Disorders: A Descriptive Study

ABSTRACTObjectives:The present study describes patterns of cannabis use, motives for use, and the relationship between cannabis use and problematic alcohol use in a large sample of individuals

Cannabis and Anxiety: a Biopsychosocial Model

The current paper presents a biopsychosocial model of cannabis use and anxiety that focuses explicitly on aspects of anxiety that may contribute to cannabis use and use-related problems among

Vulnerability Factors for the Psychiatric and Behavioral Effects of Cannabis

The present article will review the current evidence on the pharmacological, individual and situational factors that have been documented to affect the behavioral and psychiatric effects of cannabinoids.

Cannabis Use and the Risk for Psychosis and Affective Disorders

The evidence that heavy use of high-THC/low-CBD types of cannabis increases the risk of psychosis is sufficiently strong to merit public health education and the possibility that CBD may be therapeutically useful.

Cannabis and development of dual diagnoses: A literature review

There is substantial evidence of cannabis use leading to other illicit drug use and of an association between cannabis use and psychosis and a few reports suggest an association with bipolar disorder while the association with depression and anxiety disorders is mixed.

Anxiety disorders in adolescents following first cannabis consumption: case reports and review REVIEW

Current finds collectively suggest that cannabis use may be a risk factor for panic psychopathology in predisposed adolescents, which is highly disabling for teens and their relatives.

Cannabis Use and Anxiety: Is Stress the Missing Piece of the Puzzle?

With reported self-medication for anxiety being the strongest predictor of frequency of use, it is suggested that researchers, clinicians, and cannabis users pay greater attention to the overlap between stress and anxiety symptomology and the possible misinterpretation of these related but distinct conditions.

Prescribing Health Care Providers' Attitudes, Experiences, and Practices Surrounding Cannabis Use in Patients with Anxiety Disorders and Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder

Preliminary evidence suggests that certain cannabinoids may be beneficial for the treatment of anxiety and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), however, it is unclear whether these benefits are permanent or temporary.

Clinical Approaches to Cannabis: A Narrative Review.




Psychiatric aspects of cannabis use in adolescents and young adults.

Use of cannabis among teenagers can be perceived as a way of escaping from different kinds of conflicts in life and the effects on the CNS seem to be reversible.

Review of the validity and significance of cannabis withdrawal syndrome.

Converging evidence from basic laboratory and clinical studies indicates that a withdrawal syndrome reliably follows discontinuation of chronic heavy use of cannabis or tetrahydrocannabinol, and findings suggest that the syndrome has clinical importance.

A cross-study comparison of cannabis and tobacco withdrawal.

Descriptive and graphic comparisons indicate that the magnitude and time course of withdrawal effects are similar across the two syndromes.

Comorbid cannabis use and panic disorder: short term and long term follow‐up study

The aim of the study was to compare the treatment of panic disorder in patients with or without cannabis use according to response, relapse and side effects.

Prospective associations between cannabis use, abuse, and dependence and panic attacks and disorder.

Marijuana sensitivity and panic anxiety.

The authors explore the relationship between marijuana smoking and panic anxiety by examining the effects of marijuana smoking on patients with panic anxiety compared with marijuana's effects on both

Marijuana sensitivity and panic anxiety

The authors explore the relationship between marijuana smoking and panic anxiety by examining the effects of marijuana smoking on patients with panic anxiety compared with marijuana's effects on both

A community survey of adverse effects of cannabis use.

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  • Medicine, Psychology
    Drug and alcohol dependence
  • 1996

The marijuana withdrawal syndrome: Diagnosis and treatment

  • M. Haney
  • Psychology, Medicine
    Current psychiatry reports
  • 2005
The objective of this review is to update clinicians on the current state of marijuana research and to describe features of marijuana withdrawal to facilitate the diagnosis and treatment of cannabis use disorders.