Cannabis and anxiety: a critical review of the evidence

  title={Cannabis and anxiety: a critical review of the evidence},
  author={Jos{\'e} Alexandre S. Crippa and Antonio Waldo Zuardi and Roc{\'i}o Mart{\'i}n-Santos and Sagnik Bhattacharyya and Zerrin Atakan and Philip K. McGuire and Paolo Fusar-Poli},
  journal={Human Psychopharmacology: Clinical and Experimental},
Anxiety reactions and panic attacks are the acute symptoms most frequently associated with cannabis use. Understanding the relationship between cannabis and anxiety may clarify the mechanism of action of cannabis and the pathophysiology of anxiety. Aims of the present study were to review the nature of the relationship between cannabis use and anxiety, as well as the possible clinical, diagnostic and causal implications. 
Cannabis Use in Patients Seeking Therapy for Anxiety and Related Disorders: A Descriptive Study
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Cannabis and Anxiety: a Biopsychosocial Model
The current paper presents a biopsychosocial model of cannabis use and anxiety that focuses explicitly on aspects of anxiety that may contribute to cannabis use and use-related problems among
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The present article will review the current evidence on the pharmacological, individual and situational factors that have been documented to affect the behavioral and psychiatric effects of cannabinoids.
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The evidence that heavy use of high-THC/low-CBD types of cannabis increases the risk of psychosis is sufficiently strong to merit public health education and the possibility that CBD may be therapeutically useful.
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With reported self-medication for anxiety being the strongest predictor of frequency of use, it is suggested that researchers, clinicians, and cannabis users pay greater attention to the overlap between stress and anxiety symptomology and the possible misinterpretation of these related but distinct conditions.
Prescribing Health Care Providers' Attitudes, Experiences, and Practices Surrounding Cannabis Use in Patients with Anxiety Disorders and Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder
Preliminary evidence suggests that certain cannabinoids may be beneficial for the treatment of anxiety and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), however, it is unclear whether these benefits are permanent or temporary.
Clinical Approaches to Cannabis: A Narrative Review.
Cannabinoid Regulation of Fear and Anxiety: an Update
Based on this preclinical evidence, larger-scale placebo-controlled clinical studies are warranted to investigate the effects of cannabidiol in particular as an adjunct to psychological therapy or medication to determine its potential utility for treating anxiety-related disorders in the future.
Cannabis: Use, harms, disorder, and interventions
The prevalence of cannabis use, its associated harms, diagnostic considerations, and a brief review of best-practice treatment are outlined.


Can cannabis trigger recurrent panic attacks in susceptible patients?
Review of the validity and significance of cannabis withdrawal syndrome.
Converging evidence from basic laboratory and clinical studies indicates that a withdrawal syndrome reliably follows discontinuation of chronic heavy use of cannabis or tetrahydrocannabinol, and findings suggest that the syndrome has clinical importance.
A cross-study comparison of cannabis and tobacco withdrawal.
Descriptive and graphic comparisons indicate that the magnitude and time course of withdrawal effects are similar across the two syndromes.
Comorbid cannabis use and panic disorder: short term and long term follow‐up study
The aim of the study was to compare the treatment of panic disorder in patients with or without cannabis use according to response, relapse and side effects.
Prospective associations between cannabis use, abuse, and dependence and panic attacks and disorder.
Marijuana sensitivity and panic anxiety.
The authors explore the relationship between marijuana smoking and panic anxiety by examining the effects of marijuana smoking on patients with panic anxiety compared with marijuana's effects on both
Marijuana sensitivity and panic anxiety
The authors explore the relationship between marijuana smoking and panic anxiety by examining the effects of marijuana smoking on patients with panic anxiety compared with marijuana's effects on both
A community survey of adverse effects of cannabis use.
  • H. Thomas
  • Medicine, Psychology
    Drug and alcohol dependence
  • 1996