Cannabis and Psychosis: a Critical Overview of the Relationship

@article{Ksir2016CannabisAP,
  title={Cannabis and Psychosis: a Critical Overview of the Relationship},
  author={Charles J. Ksir and Carl L. Hart},
  journal={Current Psychiatry Reports},
  year={2016},
  volume={18},
  pages={1-11}
}
  • C. Ksir, C. Hart
  • Published 19 January 2016
  • Medicine, Psychology
  • Current Psychiatry Reports
Interest in the relationship between cannabis use and psychosis has increased dramatically in recent years, in part because of concerns related to the growing availability of cannabis and potential risks to health and human functioning. There now exists a plethora of scientific articles addressing this issue, but few provide a clear verdict about the causal nature of the cannabis-psychosis association. Here, we review recent research reports on cannabis and psychosis, giving particular… 
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Purpose While research has consistently identified an association between cannabis use and psychosis, few studies have examined this relationship in a polydrug context (i.e. combining cannabis with
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TLDR
A systematic review of meta-analyses and systematic reviews to evaluate the impact of cannabis use on the onset and course of psychoses found that cannabis use is associated with a dose-dependent risk of developing psychotic illness, and cannabis users have an earlier onset of psychotic illness compared to non-users.
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Cannabis use in individuals at clinical high-risk for psychosis: a comprehensive review
TLDR
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Editorial: Brain Mediators of the Cannabis-Prodromal Psychosis Connection.
  • N. Lange
  • Medicine
    Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
  • 2019
TLDR
The role of a subregion of the parahippocampal gyrus called the right uncus ("hook") as a possible mediator of the known increase of psychotic-like experiences due to the consumption of cannabinoids (ie, cannabis) is investigated.
Early cannabis use and its relation to the development of psychiatric disorders: a review
TLDR
Early onset of cannabis use is associated with mental disorders, especially psychosis, and prevention plans for cannabis use in adolescents should be developed in order to decrease the risk of mental disorders.
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References

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A controlled family study of cannabis users with and without psychosis
TLDR
The results of the current study suggest that having an increased familial morbid risk for schizophrenia may be the underlying basis for schizophrenia in cannabis users and not cannabis use by itself.
Genetic predisposition to schizophrenia associated with increased use of cannabis
TLDR
In a sample of 2082 healthy individuals, an association is shown between an individual’s burden of schizophrenia risk alleles and use of cannabis, suggesting that part of the association between schizophrenia and cannabis is due to a shared genetic aetiology.
Stronger evidence is needed before accepting that cannabis plays an important role in the aetiology of schizophrenia in the population
TLDR
There is a scientific duty to continue to investigate the role of cannabis in the aetiology of schizophrenia and the policy case for considering cannabis exposure as a critical target for preventing schizophrenia is yet to be made, but this should not affect the public health message that cannabis can be harmful and that cannabis dependence should be prevented.
Assessing evidence for a causal link between cannabis and psychosis: a review of cohort studies.
TLDR
The criteria for causal association between cannabis and psychosis are supported by the studies reviewed, but the contentious issue of whether cannabis use can cause serious psychotic disorders that would not otherwise have occurred cannot be answered from the existing data.
Adolescent Initiation of Cannabis Use and Early-Onset Psychosis.
TLDR
The current weight of evidence supports the hypothesis that early initiation of cannabis use increases the risk of early onset psychotic disorder, especially for those with a preexisting vulnerability and who have greater severity of use.
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TLDR
In people at UHR for psychosis, lifetime cannabis use was common but not related to outcome, and among cannabis users, frequent use, early-onset use and continued use after clinical presentation were associated with transition to psychosis.
Cannabis use and first-episode psychosis: relationship with manic and psychotic symptoms, and with age at presentation
TLDR
Level of cannabis use was associated with a younger age at presentation, and manic symptoms and conceptual disorganization, but not with delusions, hallucinations, negative symptoms or daily functioning, as well as effective interventions for reducing cannabis use.
Cannabis Use during Adolescent Development: Susceptibility to Psychiatric Illness
TLDR
Given the vulnerable nature of adolescent neurodevelopment and the persistent changes that follow early cannabis exposure, the experimental findings outlined should be carefully considered by policymakers and measures should be taken to reduce cannabis use among teens.
Cannabis, schizophrenia and other non-affective psychoses: 35 years of follow-up of a population-based cohort
TLDR
An increased risk of schizophrenia in a long-term perspective is confirmed, although the risk declined over time in moderate users, as well as variation in risk over time.
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