Cannabinoids control spasticity and tremor in a multiple sclerosis model

@article{Baker2000CannabinoidsCS,
  title={Cannabinoids control spasticity and tremor in a multiple sclerosis model},
  author={David Baker and Gareth Pryce and J. Ludovic Croxford and Peter Brown and Roger G. Pertwee and John W Huffman and Lorna Layward},
  journal={Nature},
  year={2000},
  volume={404},
  pages={84-87}
}
Chronic relapsing experimental allergic encephalomyelitis (CREAE) is an autoimmune model of multiple sclerosis. Although both these diseases are typified by relapsing-remitting paralytic episodes, after CREAE induction by sensitization to myelin antigens Biozzi ABH mice also develop spasticity and tremor. These symptoms also occur during multiple sclerosis and are difficult to control. This has prompted some patients to find alternative medicines, and to perceive benefit from cannabis use… 
Endocannabinoids control spasticity in a multiple sclerosis model
  • D. Baker, G. Pryce, +8 authors V. Marzo
  • Medicine
    FASEB journal : official publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
  • 2001
TLDR
These studies provide definitive evidence for the tonic control of spasticity by the endocannabinoid system and open new horizons to therapy of multiple sclerosis, and other neuromuscular diseases, based on agents modulating endoc cannabinoidoid levels and action, which exhibit little psychotropic activity.
Oral cannabinoids for spasticity in multiple sclerosis: will attitude continue to limit use?
TLDR
This study is the first large multicentre randomised placebo-controlled trial of cannabinoid therapy in multiple sclerosis and is thus an important step forward, although this trial failed to detect a significant treatment effect of any cannabinoid on the primary outcome, spasticity as measured by the Ashworth scale.
Neuroprotection in Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis and Progressive Multiple Sclerosis by Cannabis-Based Cannabinoids
TLDR
It is shown that synthetic cannabidiol can slow down the accumulation of disability from the inflammatory penumbra during relapsing experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) in ABH mice, possibly via blockade of voltage-gated sodium channels.
Cannabinoids ameliorate disease progression in a model of multiple sclerosis in mice, acting preferentially through CB1 receptor-mediated anti-inflammatory effects
TLDR
The treatment with WIN55,512-2, a potent CB(1) and CB(2) agonist, was reported to be effective to ameliorate tremor and spasticity in mice with chronic relapsing experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, a murine model of MS, but also to delay disease progression in this and other murine models of MS.
Changes in CB1 receptors in motor-related brain structures of chronic relapsing experimental allergic encephalomyelitis mice
TLDR
CB1 receptors were affected by the development of CREAE in mice exhibiting always down-regulatory responses that were circumscribed to motor-related regions and that were generally more marked during the acute and chronic phases, which may explain the efficacy of cannabinoid agonists to improve motor symptoms of multiple sclerosis in both humans and animal models.
Renewed hope for medicinal marijuana
TLDR
The study provides a rationale for carefully-designed controlled clinical trials of cannabinoid drugs for relieving tremor and spasticity in MS patients and shows that cannabinoids, notably Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (the major active ingredient of cannabis), and the synthetic agonists methanandamide and WIN 55,212 dramatically reduce motor dysfunction symptoms in CREAE mice.
Endocannabinoids in Multiple Sclerosis and Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis.
TLDR
What the authors now know about the endocannabinoid system as it relates to MS and ALS and also the therapeutic potential of cannabinoid therapeutics as disease-modifying or symptom control agents, as well as future therapeutic strategies including the potential for slowing disease progression in MS andALS are discussed.
Cannabinoids in Multiple Sclerosis
TLDR
From the studies reporting the use of cannabinoids in MS patients with spasticity, the somewhat better designed studies failed to demonstrate objective improvement, therefore, convincing evidence that cannabinoids are effective in MS is still lacking.
Cannabinoids for the control of experimental multiple sclerosis
TLDR
This study provides further evidence for the efficacy of cannabinoid compounds during an ongoing CNS disease and also their efficacy for treating the consequences of CNS autoimmune disease, which hopefully, will give additional impetus for further clinical investigations of cannabinoid agents in not only multiple sclerosis but also other neurodegenerative diseases of the CNS.
Immunoregulation of a viral model of multiple sclerosis using the synthetic cannabinoid R(+)WIN55,212
TLDR
It is shown that the cannabinoid receptor agonist, R(+)WIN55,212, ameliorates progression of clinical disease symptoms in mice with preexisting TMEV-IDD, and may also have potent immunoregulatory properties.
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