Cannabinoid Receptors: Where They are and What They do

@article{Mackie2008CannabinoidRW,
  title={Cannabinoid Receptors: Where They are and What They do},
  author={Ken Mackie},
  journal={Journal of Neuroendocrinology},
  year={2008},
  volume={20}
}
  • K. Mackie
  • Published 17 April 2008
  • Biology
  • Journal of Neuroendocrinology
The endocannabinoid system consists of the endogenous cannabinoids (endocannabinoids), cannabinoid receptors and the enzymes that synthesise and degrade endocannabinoids. Many of the effects of cannabinoids and endocannabinoids are mediated by two G protein‐coupled receptors (GPCRs), CB1 and CB2, although additional receptors may be involved. CB1 receptors are present in very high levels in several brain regions and in lower amounts in a more widespread fashion. These receptors mediate many of… 
Interactions of the opioid and cannabinoid systems in reward: Insights from knockout studies
TLDR
This review will summarize available genetic tools and present knowledge on the consequences of gene knockout on reinforced behaviors in both opioid and cannabinoid systems, with a focus on their potential interactions.
Diverse chemotypes drive biased signaling by cannabinoid receptors
TLDR
The data show that biased signaling is a prominent feature of the cannabinoid receptor system and that, as predicted, ligands with different chemotypes have distinct signaling profiles, allowing for better understanding of cannabinoid receptors signaling and aiding the design of improved therapeutics.
Cannabinoid Receptors in the Central Nervous System: Their Signaling and Roles in Disease
TLDR
The current understanding of the complex aspects of receptor signaling and trafficking, including the non-canonical signaling pathways such as those mediated by β-arrestins within the context of functional selectivity and ligand bias are described.
The major central endocannabinoid directly acts at GABAA receptors
TLDR
The identification of a functional binding site for 2-AG in the GABAA receptor may have far-reaching consequences for the study of locomotion and sedation.
Cannabinoid receptors distribution in mouse cortical plasma membrane compartments
TLDR
This study demonstrates compartmentalization of both CB1 receptor and CB2 receptor in cortical tissue and warrants further investigation of CB1 receptors andCB2 receptor compartmental distribution in various brain regions and cell types.
Role of endocannabinoids and endovanilloids in Ca2+ signalling.
Exploration of Multiverse Activities of Endocannabinoids in Biological Systems
TLDR
The current review highlights the functioning, synthesis, and degradation of endocannabinoid, and explains its functioning in biological systems.
...
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 48 REFERENCES
Cannabinoid receptors as therapeutic targets.
  • K. Mackie
  • Biology, Medicine
    Annual review of pharmacology and toxicology
  • 2006
TLDR
This review considers the components of the endocannabinoid system and discusses some of the most promising endoc cannabinoidoid-based therapies.
Structure of a cannabinoid receptor and functional expression of the cloned cDNA
TLDR
The cloning and expression of a complementary DNA that encodes a G protein-coupled receptor that is involved in cannabinoid-induced CNS effects (including alterations in mood and cognition) experienced by users of marijuana are suggested.
International Union of Pharmacology. XXVII. Classification of Cannabinoid Receptors
TLDR
It is considered premature to rename cannabinoid receptors after an endogenous agonist as is recommended by the International Union of Pharmacology Committee on Receptor Nomenclature and Drug Classification, because pharmacological evidence for the existence of additional types of cannabinoid receptor is emerging and other kinds of supporting evidence are still lacking.
Receptor-independent effects of endocannabinoids on ion channels.
  • M. Oz
  • Biology
    Current pharmaceutical design
  • 2006
TLDR
Results indicate that additional molecular targets for endocannabinoids exist and that these targets may represent important sites for cannabinoids to alter either the excitability of the neurons or the response of the neuronal systems.
Distribution of cannabinoid receptors in the central and peripheral nervous system.
  • K. Mackie
  • Biology
    Handbook of experimental pharmacology
  • 2005
TLDR
There is the need for detailed anatomical studies of brain regions important in the therapeutic actions of drugs that modify the endocannabinoid system and the determination of the localization of the enzymes that synthesize, degrade, and transport the endOCannabinoids.
The CB1 Cannabinoid Receptor Can Sequester G-Proteins, Making Them Unavailable to Couple to Other Receptors
TLDR
Both the active and inactive states of the hCB1 receptor can sequester Gi/o-proteins from a common pool and prevent other receptors from signaling, suggesting Cannabinoid receptors have the potential to prevent other Gi/O-coupled receptors from transducing their biological signals.
Molecular characterization of a peripheral receptor for cannabinoids
TLDR
The cloning of a receptor for cannabinoids is reported that is not expressed in the brain but rather in macrophages in the marginal zone of spleen, which helps clarify the non-psychoactive effects of cannabinoids.
Cannabinoids, electrophysiology, and retrograde messengers: Challenges for the next 5 years
TLDR
Evidence is presented that a major effect of Δ9THC may be to antagonize the actions of endocannabinoids, though whether it does so cooperatively or antagonistically remains an open question.
Role of endogenous cannabinoids in synaptic signaling.
TLDR
The synthetic pathways of endocannabinoids are discussed, along with the putative mechanisms of their release, uptake, and degradation, and the fine-grain anatomical distribution of the neuronal cannabinoid receptor CB1 is described in most brain areas, emphasizing its general presynaptic localization and role in controlling neurotransmitter release.
...
...