A review of protothecosis in dogs revealed that this malady usually begins in the gastrointestinal tract and progresses to systemic involvement. Clinical signs generally include bloody diarrhea or blood-stained feces as well as blindness, ataxia, and polyuria. Histologically, myriads of protothecal organisms in different stages of development are found in the granulomatous lesions. Two main species have been culturally identified: Prototheca zopfii and P wickerhamii. In the absence of cultural studies, species identification can be accomplished readily by immunofluorescence. The present case involved P zopfii infection in a 5-year-old female Cocker Spaniel that had bloody diarrhea, with a history of bloody diarrhea 6 months earlier.