Candida dubliniensis was recently described (1995) associated with oral candidiasis in HIV-positive patients. This organism is very closely related to the pathogenic human yeast, Candida albicans, and share a great number of phenotypic and genotypic characters. This great similarity limits the discrimination between these two species. Several phenotypic and molecular methods were developed. The phenotypic methods are simply used in routine discrimination between these two species and depend on the growth at high temperature, sugar assimilation, growth on special mediums and chlamydospore production…; but these methods are insensitive in discrimination between these two species. The molecular biology methods are highly reliable and able to confirm rapidly the identification of this species. In this article, we will review the various studies run out concerning the methods deployed for the identification of C. dubliniensis as well as the epidemiological implication of this new pathogen.