Cancer genes and the pathways they control

  title={Cancer genes and the pathways they control},
  author={Bert Vogelstein and Kenneth W. Kinzler},
  journal={Nature Medicine},
The revolution in cancer research can be summed up in a single sentence: cancer is, in essence, a genetic disease. In the last decade, many important genes responsible for the genesis of various cancers have been discovered, their mutations precisely identified, and the pathways through which they act characterized. The purposes of this review are to highlight examples of progress in these areas, indicate where knowledge is scarce and point out fertile grounds for future investigation. 
Cancer Gene Pathways
The answer to this question has been revealed by the functional analysis of the proteins encoded by cancer genes and their wild type counterparts.
Introduction: Cancer as an Epigenetic Disease.
A large body of literature suggests that cancer is also an epigenetic disease, and genetic instability is a feature of many cancers, and introducing specific mutations into mice result in cancer formation.
Cancer: Genetics and Important Pathways
This chapter starts with a review of the fundamental concepts in genetics and molecular biology, then discusses the genetic landscape of cancer and some of the important pathways involved in cancer.
Comparative analysis of co-expression networks reveals molecular changes during the cancer progression
The availability of high-throughput gene expression data has led to the development of various computational methods for the identification of key processes involved in prostate cancer progression.
The (r)evolution of cancer genetics
This paper shows how the founder domains of known cancer genes emerged at two macroevolutionary transitions - the advent of the first cell and the transition to metazoan multicellularity.
Survivin, cancer networks and pathway-directed drug discovery
Pursuing the nodal functions of survivin in cancer might lead to the development of global pathway inhibitors with unique therapeutic potential.
Defining the blueprint of the cancer genome.
Systematic sequencing studies have been performed on gene families involved in signal transduction in several tumor types, and have been extended to include the majority of protein-coding genes in breast and colorectal cancers, and identified new genes and pathways that had not been linked previously to human cancer.
Cancer Biology: Some Causes for a Variety of Different Diseases
This chapter will provide a detailed investigation of cancer biology including identification of many of the genes, proteins, signals, and other factors involved in tumorigenesis.


A census of human cancer genes
A 'census' of cancer genes is conducted that indicates that mutations in more than 1% of genes contribute to human cancer.
The retinoblastoma tumour suppressor in development and cancer
Since its discovery, the retinoblastoma (RB) tumour-suppressor protein has been a focal point of cancer research. Accumulating evidence indicates a complex role for RB in cell proliferation,
Multiple mutations and cancer
The premise is that normal mutation rates are insufficient to account for the multiple mutations found in human cancers, and, instead, that cancers must exhibit a mutator phenotype early during their evolution.
Genetic instabilities in human cancers
There is now evidence that most cancers may indeed be genetically unstable, but that the instability exists at two distinct levels, and recognition and comparison of these instabilities are leading to new insights into tumour pathogenesis.
The history of cancer epigenetics
This timeline traces the field from its conception to the present day and addresses the genetic basis of epigenetic changes — an emerging area that promises to unite cancer genetics and epigenetics, and might serve as a model for understanding the epigenetic basis of human disease more generally.
Disorders in cell circuitry associated with multistage carcinogenesis: exploitable targets for cancer prevention and therapy.
It is hypothesized that, because of their disordered circuitry, cancer cells suffer from "gene addiction" and "gree hypersensitivity," disorders that might be exploited in both cancer prevention and therapy.
Emerging molecular markers of cancer
Alterations in gene sequences, expression levels and protein structure or function have been associated with every type of cancer. These 'molecular markers' can be useful in detecting cancer,
In search of the tumour-suppressor functions of BRCA1 and BRCA2
What is known of BRCA gene function is analyzed and some unanswered questions in the field are highlighted to highlight the need to understand more fully the functions and responsibilities of this gene.
Telomere dysfunction and the initiation of genome instability
The cause of genomic instability in human tumours is unclear, although there is evidence to indicate that telomere dysfunction could make an important contribution.
Connecting chromosomes, crisis, and cancer.
The contrasting contributions of telomeres in the initiation and suppression of cancer are explored and evidence supporting a role for telomere dysfunction as a mechanism driving the radical chromosomal aberrations that typify cancer genomes is reviewed.