Cancer biomarkers: Written in blood

  title={Cancer biomarkers: Written in blood},
  author={Ed Yong},
  • E. Yong
  • Published 31 July 2014
  • Medicine
  • Nature
Circulating tumor DNA: a promising biomarker in the liquid biopsy of cancer
Circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) is single- or double-stranded DNA released by the tumor cells into the blood and it thus harbors the mutations of the original tumor and is capable of accurately determining the tumor progression, prognosis and assisting in targeted therapy.
Overview on Molecular Biomarkers for Laryngeal Cancer: Looking for New Answers to an Old Problem
An overview of the most promising molecular factors to date identified for both detection and monitoring of laryngeal cancer, focusing on mutated genes, non-coding RNAs, transforming epigenetic events, inflammatory mediators, and immune-related agents are provided.
Circulating tumour DNA: a challenging innovation to develop "precision onco-surgery" in pancreatic adenocarcinoma.
Current knowledge and recent developments in ctDNA as a screening, diagnostic, prognostic and predictive biomarker in the management of resectable PDAC but also technical and analytical challenges that must be overcome to move toward "precision onco-surgery" are explored.
Liquid Biopsy: A Distinctive Approach to the Diagnosis and Prognosis of Cancer
It is postulated that liquid biopsy may be a comprehensive approach to overcome the current limitations associated with costly, invasive, and time-consuming tissue biopsy.
Clinical Applications of Liquid Biopsy in Hepatocellular Carcinoma
This review summarizes the clinical applications of liquid biopsy in HCC, including circulating tumor cells (CTCs), circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA), and exosome in early diagnosis, prognostic evaluation, disease monitoring, and guiding personalized treatment.
Ascites and Serial Plasma Circulating Tumor DNA for Predicting the Effectiveness of Hyperthermic Intraperitoneal Chemotherapy in Patients With Peritoneal Carcinomatosis
The △mTBI and △sum-VAF can be used as predictors of HIPEC efficacy in patients with PC and accurately reflected tumor burden, and may be a negative risk factor for prognosis.
Biosensors and nanotechnology for cancer diagnosis (lung and bronchus, breast, prostate, and colon): a systematic review
The recent advances in the application of common nanomaterials like graphene, carbon nanotubes, Au, Ag, Pt, and Fe3O4 together with newly emerged nanoparticles such as quantum dots, upconversion nanoparticles, inorganics, and metal–organic frameworks for the diagnosis of biomarkers related to lung, prostate, breast, and colon cancer are highlighted.
Preliminary Study on the Relationship of BRAF Mutations with the Outcome of the First 131I Radiotherapy and Malignant Biological Characteristics in Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma
In both tumor tissues and ctDNA, BRAF mutation showed no relationship with the outcome of first 131I treatment and the malignant biological characteristics of PTC, suggesting the value of BRAF mutations alone might be limited in predicting therapeutic outcome of the first131I treatment in PTC.
Abscopal Effects in Metastatic Cancer: Is a Predictive Approach Possible to Improve Individual Outcomes?
Patients with metastatic cancers often require radiotherapy (RT) as a palliative therapy for cancer pain. RT can, however, also induce systemic antitumor effects outside of the irradiated field


Noninvasive Identification and Monitoring of Cancer Mutations by Targeted Deep Sequencing of Plasma DNA
Levels of mutant alleles reflected the clinical course of the disease and its treatment—for example, stabilized disease was associated with low allelic frequency, whereas patients at relapse exhibited a rise in frequency, and TAm-Seq will need to achieve a more sensitive detection limit to identify mutations in the plasma of patients with less advanced cancers.
Detection of Circulating Tumor DNA in Early- and Late-Stage Human Malignancies
The ability of circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) to detect tumors in 640 patients with various cancer types was evaluated and suggested that ctDNA is a broadly applicable, sensitive, and specific biomarker that can be used for a variety of clinical and research purposes.
Point mutations of the N‐ras gene in the blood plasma DNA of patients with myelodysplastic syndrome or acute myelogenous leukaemia
Investigation of point mutations of the ras gene in the DNA of plasma, blood cells and bone marrow of 10 patients suffering from AML or MDS indicates that a bone marrow biopsy or aspiration does not necessarily contain all the malignant clones involved in the disease.
Non-invasive analysis of acquired resistance to cancer therapy by sequencing of plasma DNA
Serial analysis of cancer genomes in plasma constitutes a new paradigm for the study of clonal evolution in human cancers, establishing proof of principle that exome-wide analysis of circulating tumour DNA could complement current invasive biopsy approaches to identify mutations associated with acquired drug resistance in advanced cancers.
Analysis of circulating tumor DNA to monitor metastatic breast cancer.
This proof-of-concept analysis showed that circulating tumor DNA is an informative, inherently specific, and highly sensitive biomarker of metastatic breast cancer.
Free DNA in the serum of cancer patients and the effect of therapy.
The relatively high percentage of cancer patients with apparently normal DNA levels would suggest that this radioimmunoassay may have low diagnostic value, but DNA in the serum may be an important tool for the evaluation of therapy or the comparison of different regimens.
Intratumor heterogeneity and branched evolution revealed by multiregion sequencing.
Intratumor heterogeneity can lead to underestimation of the tumor genomics landscape portrayed from single tumor-biopsy samples and may present major challenges to personalized-medicine and biomarker development.
An ultrasensitive method for quantitating circulating tumor DNA with broad patient coverage
It is envisioned that CAPP-Seq could be routinely applied clinically to detect and monitor diverse malignancies, thus facilitating personalized cancer therapy.
The molecular evolution of acquired resistance to targeted EGFR blockade in colorectal cancers
Results suggest that the emergence of KRAS mutations is a mediator of acquired resistance to EGFR blockade and that these mutations can be detected in a non-invasive manner, which explains why solid tumours develop resistance to targeted therapies in a highly reproducible fashion.