Canadian Journal of Psychology Outstanding Contributions Series Levels of Processing: A Retrospective Commentary on a Framework for Memory Research

@inproceedings{Lockhart1990CanadianJO,
  title={Canadian Journal of Psychology Outstanding Contributions Series Levels of Processing: A Retrospective Commentary on a Framework for Memory Research},
  author={Robert Sydney Lockhart and F. I. M. Craik},
  year={1990}
}
The influence on memory research of levels of processing (Craik & I^ockharl, 1972) is reviewed, and a number of conceptual and empirical criticisms are evaluated. Research since 1972 has enabled the original formulation of depth of processing to be refined in various ways, and the concepts of elaboration and distinctiveness of encoding are discussed as examples of this refinement. It is concluded that, despite change and development, many of the original ideas of levels of processing have… CONTINUE READING

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