Can virtual reality exposure therapy gains be generalized to real-life? A meta-analysis of studies applying behavioral assessments.

  title={Can virtual reality exposure therapy gains be generalized to real-life? A meta-analysis of studies applying behavioral assessments.},
  author={Nexhmedin Morina and Hiske Ijntema and Katharina Meyerbr{\"o}ker and Paul M. G. Emmelkamp},
  journal={Behaviour research and therapy},

Virtual Reality, Augmented Reality, and In Vivo Exposure Therapy: A Preliminary Comparison of Treatment Efficacy in Small Animal Phobia

Only for distance covered, the results revealed a tendency for iVET to be more effective than VRET and ARET in participants with worse performance on the BAT before treatment, while pretreatment scores on distance covered in the avoidance test might be used to personalize treatments.

Gamified, Automated Virtual Reality Exposure Therapy for Fear of Spiders: A Single-Subject Trial Under Simulated Real-World Conditions

An automated VRET intervention for fear of spiders showed equivalent effects on phobia symptoms under effectiveness conditions as previously reported under efficacy conditions, suggesting that automated V RET applications are promising self-help treatments also when provided under real-world conditions.

Is Continued Improvement After Automated Virtual Reality Exposure Therapy for Spider Phobia Explained by Subsequent in-vivo Exposure? A First Test of the Lowered Threshold Hypothesis

Preliminary, partial support for the lowered threshold hypothesis is offered, suggesting that VR exposure interventions may benefit from including explicit in-virtuo to in-vivo transitioning components.

Virtual Reality exposure therapy for public speaking anxiety in routine care: a single-subject effectiveness trial

It is concluded that VR exposure therapy can be effective under routine care conditions and is an attractive approach for future, large-scale implementation and effectiveness trials.

A Meta-Analysis of the Efficacy of Virtual Reality and In Vivo Exposure Therapy as Psychological Interventions for Public Speaking Anxiety

Although IVET was marginally superior to VRET, both interventions proved efficacious and future research and clinical practice could explore VRET as a treatment option for PSA.

Virtual Reality Exposure Therapy for Fear of Heights: Clinicians’ Attitudes Become More Positive After Trying VRET

VRET for fear of heights was able to induce and reduce discomfort in clinicians and non-clinicians, and clinicians’ attitudes toward using VRET become more positive after trying VRET for themselves.

Virtual Reality for the Treatment of Anxiety Disorders: A Scoping Review.

  • M. DonnellyRenee Reinberg S. Liew
  • Psychology, Medicine
    The American journal of occupational therapy : official publication of the American Occupational Therapy Association
  • 2021
It is suggested that HMD-VR can be used by occupational therapy practitioners to simulate ecologically valid environments, evaluate client responses to fearful stimuli, and remediate anxiety though immersion in virtual tasks when participation in natural contexts is unfeasible.

STUDY PROTOCOL: EXPOSURE IN VIRTUAL REALITY FOR SOCIAL ANXIETY DISORDER - a randomized controlled superiority trial comparing cognitive behavioral therapy with virtual reality based exposure to cognitive behavioral therapy with in vivo exposure

This study will be the first Danish SAD treatment program that includes VR technology and the primary outcome measure is reduction in SAD symptoms which will be assessed with the Social Interaction Anxiety Scale (SIAS).



The effects of a treatment based on the use of virtual reality exposure and cognitive-behavioral therapy applied to patients with agoraphobia

Exposure to virtual reality phobic environments was used with patients with chronic agoraphobia. The exposure to virtual stimuli has been verified as a useful procedure in treating phobic disorders.

Virtual reality exposure therapy for anxiety disorders: A meta-analysis.

Virtual reality exposure therapy for social anxiety disorder: a randomized controlled trial.

Virtual reality exposure therapy is equally effective as exposure group therapy; further research with a larger sample is needed, however, to better control and statistically test differences between the treatments.

One-session virtual reality exposure treatment for fear of flying: 1-Year follow-up and graduation flight accompaniment effects

Abstract The efficacy of a brief 1-session virtual reality (VR) exposure treatment of fear of flying (FOF) was demonstrated in a prior study (Mühlberger, Wiedemann, & Pauli, 2003). The current study

Documenting the Efficacy of Virtual RealityExposure with Psychophysiological andInformation Processing Measures

Recording the impact of virtual reality exposure (VRE) on cardiac response and automatic processing of threatening stimuli and Psychophysiological data also showed a positive change after treatment, suggesting a decrease in anxiety.

Virtual reality exposure therapy for the treatment of fear of flying: a controlled investigation.

Both groups showed significant improvement following treatment on standardized self-report measures of flight anxiety, with a better outcome for the VRE group on 4 of 5 of these measures, but at 6-month follow-up, most group differences had disappeared.

Affective outcomes of virtual reality exposure therapy for anxiety and specific phobias: a meta-analysis.

A Meta-Analysis on the Relationship between Self-Reported Presence and Anxiety in Virtual Reality Exposure Therapy for Anxiety Disorders

The positive relation between sense of presence and anxiety is confirmed and it is demonstrated that this relation can be affected by various moderating factors.