14CO2 production from [l-14C]oleate, [l-14C]butyrate and [U-14C]proline by isolated rat hepatocytes was studied. In hepatocytes from fed rats, fatty acid and proline oxidation are stimulated in parallel by adrenaline, noradrenaline, vasopressin and angiotensin II. In contrast in hepatocytes from 24 h-starved rats these hormones stimulate proline oxidation whereas oleate and butyrate oxidation is hormone-insensitive. This suggests that 14CO2 production from [U-14C]proline and [l-14C]oleate is subject to independent endocrine control. In support of this in hepatocytes from fed rats, glucagon and dibutyryl cyclic AMP stimulate 14CO2 production from proline but inhibit 14CO2 production from [l-14C]oleate. The pathway of hepatic proline oxidation is discussed and it is suggested that 2-oxoglutarate dehydrogenase is one site of endocrine control of proline oxidation.