Can fish suffer?: perspectives on sentience, pain, fear and stress

  title={Can fish suffer?: perspectives on sentience, pain, fear and stress},
  author={K P Chandroo and Ian J. H. Duncan and Richard D. Moccia},
  journal={Applied Animal Behaviour Science},
In contrast to other major forms of livestock agriculture, there is a paucity of scientific information on the welfare of fish raised under intensive aquacultural conditions. This reflects an adherence to the belief that these animals have not evolved the salient biological characteristics that are hypothesised to permit sentience. In this review, we evaluate the scientific evidence for the existence of sentience in fish, and in particular, their ability to experience pain, fear and… Expand
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