Can drug effects on mortality in heart failure be predicted by any surrogate measure?

  title={Can drug effects on mortality in heart failure be predicted by any surrogate measure?},
  author={K M Yee and A. D. Struthers},
  journal={European heart journal},
  volume={18 12},
Clearly at present, the one perfect surrogate marker for mortality remains elusive. Chronic heart failure is a complex syndrome: as such it may perhaps be too simplistic to expect any single parameter to be universally predictive of drug effects on mortality, especially when each drug works by different mechanisms. Nevertheless, neurohormonal antagonists, such as ACE inhibitors and beta-blockers, seem to benefit both mortality and all surrogate markers of mortality. Equally, inotropic drugs and… 

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