Can birds be ammonotelic? Nitrogen balance and excretion in two frugivores

@article{Tsahar2005CanBB,
  title={Can birds be ammonotelic? Nitrogen balance and excretion in two frugivores},
  author={Ella Tsahar and Carlos Martinez Del Rio and Ido Izhaki and Zeev Arad},
  journal={Journal of Experimental Biology},
  year={2005},
  volume={208},
  pages={1025 - 1034}
}
SUMMARY We measured minimal nitrogen requirements (MNR), total endogenous nitrogen loss (TENL) and the effect of protein and water intake on the nitrogenous waste composition in two frugivorous bird species: yellow-vented bulbuls Pycnonotus xanthopygos and Tristram's grackles Onychognathus tristrami. The nitrogen requirements of both species were much lower than expected for their body mass. The two species differed in the composition of the nitrogenous waste that they produced. The grackles… 

Tables from this paper

Ammonia excretion increased and urea excretion decreased in urine of a new world nectarivorous bat with decreased nitrogen intake.

Abstract We determined the effect of water and nitrogen intake on nitrogenous waste composition in the nectarivorous Pallas’s long‐tongued bat Glossophaga soricina (Phyllostomidae) to test the

Ammonia Excretion Increased and Urea Excretion Decreased in Urine of a New World Nectarivorous Bat with Decreased Nitrogen Intake

TLDR
The nitrogen excretion hypothesis was partly proved correct and it was hypothesized that, similar to other plant‐eating vertebrates, nectarivorous bats have low MNR.

DO NECTAR- AND FRUIT-EATING BIRDS HAVE LOWER NITROGEN REQUIREMENTS THAN OMNIVORES? AN ALLOMETRIC TEST

TLDR
The residuals of the allometric relationships between TENL and MNR and body mass were positively correlated, which suggests that a large proportion of the interspecific variation in MNR is explained by variation in TENl.

Ammonotely in a neotropical frugivorous bat as energy intake decreases.

TLDR
By favoring ammonia production over urea, bats on the energy-poor diet may save up to 1% of their basal metabolic rate, which is inversely related to energy intake, but they were not related to N intake.

Sources of Assimilated Protein in a Specialized Tropical Frugivorous Bird, the Yellow-Throated Euphonia (Euphonia Hirundinacea)

TLDR
In comparisons of bird species, δ15N values of Yellow-throated Euphonia were lower than those of insectivorous and piscivorous species but similar to the values found in seed-fruit eaters.

Protein Requirements of an Omnivorous and a Granivorous Songbird Decrease During Migration

TLDR
This work measured the protein requirements of the omnivorous Hermit Thrush and the granivorous White-throated Sparrow during nonmigratory and migratory stages of the annual cycle and compared the results with published estimates for other songbird species.

Estimating the contribution of carnivorous waterbirds to nutrient loading in freshwater habitats

TLDR
Investigation of nitrogen and phosphorus loading into wetlands by carnivorous waterbirds with alternative physiological models using a food-intake and an excretaproduction approach indicated that the intake model was most affected by errors in energy requirement, while the excretion model was dependent on faecal nutrient composition.

The Bananaquit, a Neotropical passerine nectar feeding bird, has a high protein requirement relative to other nectarivorous birds

TLDR
The Bananaquit presents a low nitrogen requirement when compared to other species with different feeding habits, which suggest different physiological and behavioral strategies from other nectar-feeding birds or methodological issues associated to an unbalanced diet based on a protein plant source.

Effect of feeding graded levels of crude protein on nutrient utilization and feather growth in Lady Amherst's pheasants.

TLDR
Regression analysis indicates that LAP can maintain body mass when ME supply is 122.2 Kcal/kg BW(0.75)/d and that a diet containing 16.5% CP would be optimum for Lady Amherst's pheasants during molt.

Dietary protein influences the rate of 15N incorporation in blood cells and plasma of Yellow-vented bulbuls (Pycnonotus xanthopygos)

TLDR
Using model comparison analyses, it is found that one-compartment models described incorporation data better than two-compartments models, and isotopic incorporation rates and tissue-to-diet discrimination factors cannot be considered fixed, as they depend on diet composition.

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 46 REFERENCES

Ammonotely in a passerine nectarivore: the influence of renal and post-renal modification on nitrogenous waste product excretion.

TLDR
It is suggested that ammonotely may not be a unique feature of nectarivorous birds and could occur in any species in which breakdown of urate in the hindgut allows the uric acid-nitrogen concentration in the excreta to fall below that of the ammonia-Nitrogen concentration.

DECOMPOSITION OF NITROGENOUS COMPOUNDS BY INTESTINAL BACTERIA IN HUMMINGBIRDS

TLDR
Ureteral urine containing ammonia, urea, and uric acid has been observed in the lower intestinal tract of Anna's Hummingbird, for the first time, and degradation of nitrogenous compounds by intestinal bacteria in a bird that is nectarivorous and lacks ceca is reported.

Are Hummingbirds Facultatively Ammonotelic? Nitrogen Excretion and Requirements as a Function of Body Size

TLDR
The results support the hypothesis that nectar‐feeding birds have low protein requirements but cast doubt on the notion that they are facultatively ammonotelic, and hint at a possible size‐dependent dichotomy in hummingbirds.

Are the Low Protein Requirements of Nectarivorous Birds the Consequence of Their Sugary and Watery Diet? A Test with an Omnivore

TLDR
The measurements of minimal nitrogen requirements and total endogenous nitrogen loss in the omnivorous European starling Sturnus vulgaris suggest that the low measured nitrogen requirements of nectar‐feeding birds are not simply the result of their sugary and watery diets but a physiological adaptation to the low nitrogen input.

Nitrogen and Energy Balance of the Fruit Bat Rousettus aegyptlacus on Natural Fruit Diets

TLDR
Results suggest that energy, rather than nitrogen, is the limiting nutritional component in the diet of the fruit bat, and the maintenance nitrogen requirement is much lower than reported for other species of fruit bats.

Changes in the Composition of the Urine of Yellow‐Vented Bulbuls (Pycnonotus xanthopygos): The Effects of Ambient Temperature, Nitrogen, and Water Intake

TLDR
It is demonstrated that, when bulbuls are exposed to low Ta, they are able to save energy by increasing the proportion of the ammonia in their urine.

Protein Requirements of a Specialized Frugivore, Pesquet's Parrot (Psittrichas fulgidus)

TLDR
Reduced protein requirements appear to play an important physiological role in ability of highly frugivorous birds to subsist on fruit diets, particularly in Pesquet's Parrot.

Ecological and Evolutionary Implications of Energy and Protein Requirements of Avian Frugivores Eating Sugary Diets

  • M. Witmer
  • Biology, Medicine
    Physiological Zoology
  • 1998
TLDR
Cedar waxwings consumed each diet at higher rates than did thrushes, demonstrating that interspecific differences in ingestion rates of sugary fruits are a consequence of nutrient composition, rather than seed bulk or secondary compounds of fruits.

Nitrogen excretion: three end products, many physiological roles.

  • P. Wright
  • Environmental Science, Biology
    The Journal of experimental biology
  • 1995
TLDR
There are diverse physiological functions of nitrogen end products in different animal groups, including excretion, acid-base regulation, osmoregulation and buoyancy, and both invertebrates and vertebrates use nitrogen-containing organic compounds as intracellular osmolytes.

Pollen and the Nitrogen Requirements of the Lesser Double-collared Sunbird

TLDR
Nectarivorous birds typically are small, often weighing less than 10 g, and have high basal metabolic rates, so the major nitrogen sources obtained from insects are likely to be the proteins, peptides, and free amino acids found in their tissues.