Can a witness report hearsay evidence unintentionally? The effects of discussion on eyewitness memory

@article{Paterson2012CanAW,
  title={Can a witness report hearsay evidence unintentionally? The effects of discussion on eyewitness memory},
  author={Helena M. Paterson and Richard I Kemp and Sarah McIntyre},
  journal={Psychology, Crime \& Law},
  year={2012},
  volume={18},
  pages={505 - 527}
}
Abstract When eyewitnesses are exposed to misinformation about an event from a co-witness, they often incorporate this misinformation in their recall of the event. The current research aimed to investigate whether this memory conformity phenomenon is due to change in the witness's memory for the event, or to social pressures to conform to the co-witness's account. Participants were shown a crime video and then asked to discuss the video in groups, with some receiving misinformation about the… 
Investigating the effects of co-witness influence on blame attribution
Through the use of misinformation paradigms, research has demonstrated that eyewitnesses can be influenced by their co-witnesses when attempting to attribute blame to the correct person in incidents
Consequences of False Memories in Eyewitness Testimony: A Review and Implications for Chinese Legal Practice
False memories can result in severe legal consequences including the imprisonment of innocent people. False memory in eyewitnesses is the largest factor contributing to miscarriages of justice in the
False reports of an accomplice in a crime scene: conformity effects on memory confidence and accuracy
Abstract The memory reports of a given individual may be altered by preceding memory reports of another individual, a phenomenon termed memory conformity. To investigate this phenomenon, 58
Co-Witness Auditory Memory Conformity following Discussion: A Misinformation Paradigm
TLDR
Witness memory performance was assessed individually with multiple-choice questionnaires and source monitoring analyses revealed that even those participants who conformed were mostly cognizant of the source of their information just after the discussion, but they were prone to source-monitoring errors a week later.
Investigating the effects of age and gender on cowitness suggestibility during blame attribution
Despite a large body of research investigating the effects of age and gender on eyewitness suggestibility, the majority of studies have focussed on the impressionability of participants when
Can warnings decrease the misinformation effect in post‐event debriefing?
Purpose – Operational debriefing and psychological debriefing both involve groups of participants (typically from the emergency services) discussing a critical incident. Research on post‐incident
Refugee Status Determinations and the Limits of Memory
Refugee status decision makers typically have unreasonable expectations of what and how people remember. Many assume that our minds record all aspects of the events that we experience, and that these
Detrimental Effects of Post-Incident Debriefing on Memory and Psychological Responses
Emergency service personnel, such as police officers, firefighters and paramedics, often take part in Critical Incident Stress Debriefing (CISD; Mitchell, 1983) following exposure to traumatic
Eyewitness Memory Distortion Following Co-Witness Discussion: A Replication of Garry, French, Kinzett, and Mori (2008) in Ten Countries
...
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 49 REFERENCES
Combating Co-witness Contamination: Attempting to Decrease the Negative Effects of Discussion on Eyewitness Memory
Witnesses who discuss an event with others often incorporate misinformation encountered during the discussion into their memory of the event. Two experiments were conducted to establish whether this
Co-witness Information Can Have Immediate Effects on Eyewitness Memory Reports
TLDR
Results have implications not only for the immediate effects on the accuracy of witnesses' memory reports, but also for the impact that even one such inaccurate report can have on the manner in which a case is investigated by the police or other authorities.
Co-witnesses talk: A survey of eyewitness discussion
Abstract The objective of this study was to obtain a quantitative measure of the discussion behaviour of real eyewitnesses. Undergraduate psychology students were given a questionnaire to determine
Memory conformity: Can eyewitnesses influence each other's memories for an event?
The current study investigated memory conformity effects between individuals who witness and then discuss a criminal event, employing a novel procedure whereby each member of a dyad watches a
Say it to my face: examining the effects of socially encountered misinformation
Objectives. Errors in eyewitness accounts can occur when a witness comes into contact with post-event ‘misinformation’. A common way to encounter misinformation is through face-to-face interaction,
The prevalence of co-witnesses and co-witness discussions in real eyewitnesses
Abstract Several laboratory studies have shown that eyewitness discussions can negatively affect memory recall. The current study looked at the prevalence of multiple witnesses using real witnesses
Eyewitness Testimony: The Effects of Discussion on Recall Accuracy and Agreement
While some previous research has suggested that group discussion may facilitate eyewitness accuracy, other research has drawn attention to the potential dangers of such discussion. The present
Comparing methods of encountering post‐event information: the power of co‐witness suggestion
The current study compared the effects of co-witness information on memory with more widely studied methods of encountering post-event information. Participants were shown a crime video and then
The Effects of Discussion on Eyewitness Memory1
This study investigated the effects of witness discussion on the accuracy of recall and misidentifications in eyewitness memory. Dyadic groups who discussed the crime and dyads who made joint
Memory conformity: exploring misinformation effects when presented by another person.
TLDR
Two experiments demonstrate that post-event information, when delivered by another person, can affect people's memory reports and parallels with eyewitness testimony in the Oklahoma bombing case and implications for police interviewing more generally are discussed.
...
...