Can Infections Cause Alzheimer Disease?

@article{Komaroff2020CanIC,
  title={Can Infections Cause Alzheimer Disease?},
  author={Anthony L. Komaroff},
  journal={JAMA},
  year={2020}
}

The amino acid residues phe76‐val96 of KL aligned closely with residues asp7‐asn27 of Aβ. Cross‐species comparison of KL revealed a high degree of alignment and conservation

TLDR
Aβ can enhance the ability of klotho to draw FGF21 to regions of incipient neurodegeneration in AD, suggesting that Aβ is likely a result, not a cause, of AD and may be protective rather than harmful.

Lead-exposure associated miRNAs in humans and Alzheimer’s disease as potential biomarkers of the disease and disease processes

Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disease that eventually affects memory and behavior. The identification of biomarkers based on risk factors for AD provides insight into the disease

Hospital-treated infections in early- and mid-life and risk of Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: A nationwide nested case-control study in Sweden

TLDR
Hospital-treated infections, especially in early- and mid-life, were associated with an increased risk of Alzheimer’s disease and PD, primarily among AD and PD cases diagnosed before 60 years, and these findings suggest that infectious events may be a trigger or amplifier of a preexisting disease process, leading to clinical onset of neurodegenerative disease at a relatively early age.

Antimicrobial Peptides (AMPs) in the Pathogenesis of Alzheimer’s Disease: Implications for Diagnosis and Treatment

TLDR
The literature demonstrates that Aβ can be considered itself as an AMP; thus, representing a type of innate immune defense peptide that protects the host against a variety of pathogens.

Oral Health: Opportunities for Lifestyle Medicine Highlighted by the SARS-CoV-2 Pandemic

TLDR
Lifestyle medicine professionals have a chance to encourage behaviors that individuals can undertake to promote good oral health outside of the dentist’s office as well as shaping public perceptions about and reinforcing the importance of resuming dental visits as governmental restrictions allow.

Comprehensive Management of Daily Living Activities, behavioral and Psychological Symptoms, and Cognitive Function in Patients with Alzheimer's Disease: A Chinese Consensus on the Comprehensive Management of Alzheimer's Disease

TLDR
The consensus summarizes the pathogenesis, pathological changes, clinical manifestations, evaluation, diagnosis, drug and non-drug treatment, and patient care for AD and provides a feasible AD management process for clinicians.

HIV disease duration, but not active brain infection, predicts cortical amyloid beta deposition.

TLDR
It is hypothesized that dual aspects of immune suppression and stimulation in HIV, and beneficial survivor effects in older HIV+ individuals, account for HIV+ status decreasing, and HIV duration increasing, odds of Aβ, suggesting HIV-associated accelerated brain senescence.

References

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TLDR
A herpes-induced tissue model of AD is reported that mimics human disease with multicellular amyloid plaque–like formations, gliosis, neuroinflammation, and decreased functionality, completely in the absence of any exogenous mediators of AD.

Human Herpesvirus 6 Detection in Alzheimer’s Disease Cases and Controls across Multiple Cohorts

TLDR
These direct methods of viral detection do not suggest an association between HHV-6 and AD, although other viruses, such as Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and cytomegalovirus (CMV), were detected at comparable levels.

Could autophagy dysregulation link neurotropic viruses to Alzheimer’s disease?

TLDR
Evidence suggests that it is worth further investigating the role of neurotropic herpesviruses, particularly human herpesvirus-6A/B, in the etiopathogenesis of Alzheimer’s disease.

Corroboration of a Major Role for Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 in Alzheimer’s Disease

  • R. Itzhaki
  • Biology, Medicine
    Front. Aging Neurosci.
  • 2018
TLDR
Three publications have now appeared describing data on the development of senile dementia (SD), and the treatment of those with marked overt signs of disease caused by varicella zoster virus (VZV), or by HSV, with striking results show that the risk of SD is much greater in those who are HSV-seropositive than in seronegative subjects, and that antiviral treatment causes a dramatic decrease in number of subjects who later develop SD.

Anti-herpetic Medications and Reduced Risk of Dementia in Patients with Herpes Simplex Virus Infections—a Nationwide, Population-Based Cohort Study in Taiwan

TLDR
The usage of anti-herpetic medications in the treatment of HSV infections was associated with a decreased risk of dementia, and this findings could be a signal to clinicians caring for patients with HSV infection.

The amyloid hypothesis of Alzheimer's disease at 25 years

TLDR
Although many factors contribute to AD pathogenesis, Aβ dyshomeostasis has emerged as the most extensively validated and compelling therapeutic target.