Can Executive Functions Explain the Relationship Between Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and Social Adjustment?

  title={Can Executive Functions Explain the Relationship Between Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and Social Adjustment?},
  author={Cynthia Huang-Pollock and Amori Yee Mikami and Linda J. Pfiffner and Keith McBurnett},
  journal={Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology},
This study examined the ability of executive functions (EF) to account for the relationship between Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) status and social adjustment as indexed by parent and teacher report and by performance on a standardized observational “chat room” task. Children with the Combined subtype (ADHD-C; n = 23), the Primarily Inattentive Subtype (ADHD-I; n = 33), and non-ADHD controls (n = 36) participated. EF did not mediate the relationship between ADHD status and… 

Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Symptoms Mediate the Association between Deficits in Executive Functioning and Social Impairment in Children

Tests of hierarchical models suggest that neither inhibition nor working memory is primary but, rather, that these cognitive processes are related to one another and that they collectively contribute to hyperactivity/impulsivity and inattention.

Neurocognitive and Behavioral Predictors of Social Problems in ADHD: A Bayesian Framework

These findings confirm that ADHD is associated with impaired social performance, and implicate working memory and core ADHD symptoms in the acquisition and performance of socially skilled behavior.

The Association of Executive Functioning With Academic, Behavior, and Social Performance Ratings in Children With ADHD

Investigation of the association of a performance-based measure of executive functioning with academic, social, and behavioral performance ratings in a convenience sample of 153 children diagnosed with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder showed poorer EF performance was uniquely associated with more impairment in reading, written expression, and math by teacher report.

The role of inattention and social perception and performance in two subtypes of ADHD.

  • M. Semrud-Clikeman
  • Psychology
    Archives of clinical neuropsychology : the official journal of the National Academy of Neuropsychologists
  • 2010
The findings show a link between inattention and social perception that is separate from impulsivity difficulties, and have important implications for treatment.

ADHD Symptoms and peer problems: Mediation of executive function and theory of mind.

EF impairments contribute to the social difficulties of children with ADHD, and indirect mediation effects of EF in the relationship between ADHD symptoms and problems in relationships with peers, whereas ToM did not show these effects.

A critical appraisal of the role of neuropsychological deficits in preschool ADHD

  • D. SjöwallL. Thorell
  • Psychology
    Child neuropsychology : a journal on normal and abnormal development in childhood and adolescence
  • 2019
Results showed that the ADHD group differed from controls with regard to all measures of executive functioning and most measures of delay-related behaviors, but few differences were found for emotional functioning.

Working Memory Deficits and Social Problems in Children with ADHD

Impaired social interactions in children with ADHD reflect, to a significant extent, the behavioral outcome of being unable to maintain a focus of attention on information within working memory while simultaneously dividing attention among multiple, on-going events and social cues occurring within the environment.

Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder in children and adolescents : neuropsychological deficits and functional outcomes

This thesis investigated the role of neuropsychological functioning in ADHD and some of the major functional consequences of the disorder: academic achievement and peer problems. Study I used both a

Attention Problems as a Mediator of the Relation between Executive Function and Social Problems in a Child and Adolescent Outpatient Sample

The effects of working memory and planning on social problems were mediated by attention problems in both teacher- and mother- reported models, and held up in cross-source models (e.g., mother-reported attention problems as a mediator in a model predicting teacher-reported social problems).



Social Functioning and Emotional Regulation in the Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Subtypes

Regression analyses revealed that social performance, emotional regulation, and, to a lesser degree, social knowledge, were predictive of social status.

Impact of Executive Functioning and Symptoms of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder on Children's Peer Relations and School Performance

Interaction effects between ADHD and EF and between EF and gender were found: At high levels of symptoms of inattention, the poorer the EF, the greater the need for special education.

Impact of executive function deficits and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) on academic outcomes in children.

The association between executive function deficits (EFDs) and functional outcomes were examined among children and adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and these results support screening children with ADHD for EFDs to prevent academic failure.

Social Skills Differences among Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Types in a Chat Room Assessment Task

Social skills were assessed in 116 children aged 7–12 with ADHD-Combined Type, ADHD-Inattentive Type, and comparison children with consideration of the role sluggish cognitive tempo (SCT) symptoms play in distinguishing profiles, and SCT symptoms predicted a distinct pattern of social withdrawal and lower hostility.

The relationship between executive function abilities, adaptive behaviour, and academic achievement in children with externalising behaviour problems.

Poorer adaptive communication skills were specifically associated with ADHD when compared with either O DD/CD or the control group, and the social competence of adolescents with ADHD was as low as the levels associated with ODD/CD.

Neuropsychological correlates of childhood attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: explainable by comorbid disruptive behavior or reading problems?

Results suggest that in a clinical sample, difficulties on effortful neuropsychological tasks that require planning or controlled motor output pertain at least in part to ADHD and are not fully accounted for by comorbid conditions.

Behavioral inhibition, sustained attention, and executive functions: constructing a unifying theory of ADHD.

  • R. Barkley
  • Psychology, Biology
    Psychological bulletin
  • 1997
A theoretical model that links inhibition to 4 executive neuropsychological functions that appear to depend on it for their effective execution is constructed and finds it to be strongest for deficits in behavioral inhibition, working memory, regulation of motivation, and motor control in those with ADHD.

Executive Functioning, Temporal Discounting, and Sense of Time in Adolescents with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD)

Group differences in CPT Inattention, temporal discounting, and time reproduction were not a function of level of comorbid oppositional defiant disorder, delinquency, or anxiety–depression and are reasonably consistent with past research on EF and sense of time in children with ADHD.

A meta-analysis of working memory impairments in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

Evidence of WM impairments in children with ADHD supports recent theoretical models implicating WM processes in ADHD and is needed to more clearly delineate the nature, severity, and specificity of the impairments to ADHD.