Can Compulsory Military Service Increase Civilian Wages? Evidence from the Peacetime Draft in Portugal

  title={Can Compulsory Military Service Increase Civilian Wages? Evidence from the Peacetime Draft in Portugal},
  author={David Card and Ana Rute Cardoso},
  journal={NBER Working Paper Series},
Although the practice of military conscription was widespread during most of the past century, credible evidence on the effects of mandatory service is limited. Angrist (1990) showed that the Vietnam-era draft in the U.S. lowered the early-career wages of conscripts, a finding he attributed to the low value of military experience. More recent studies have found a mixed pattern of effects, with both negative (the Netherlands) and positive (in Sweden) earnings impacts. Even among Vietnam era… 
Ex-ante labor market effects of compulsory military service
Evaluating the Internal Labor Migration Effects of Compulsory Peacetime Conscription
ABSTRACT Conscription typically involves migration to the duty base location. According to DaVanzo’s theory of repeat migration, this military-motivated migration might foster post-military
Effects of Mandatory Military Service on Wages and Other Socioeconomic Outcomes
IZA DP No. 14352 MAY 2021 Effects of Mandatory Military Service on Wages and Other Socioeconomic Outcomes In this paper, we estimate the effects of mandatory military service by exploiting the
Compulsory military service, civilian wages, and retirement decision
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the effect of veteran status on civilian wages and on retirement age through employing individual-level data.
Conscription and Educational Outcomes: Quasi-Experimental Evidence from the Republic of Cyprus
Peacetime military service has both positive and negative effects on human capital. While it depreciates academic abilities it also enhances non-cognitive skills. The net effect of conscription is
Heterogeneity of the Eects of Compulsory Military Service on Income: Evidence from Russia
This paper summarizes evidence on the eects of military service on income and wage using individual level data on Russian males from RLMS survey. The main finding is that an additional year of
The Causal Effect of Military Conscription on Crime and the Labor Market
We study the causal effect of mandatory military conscription in Sweden on the criminal behaviour of men born in the 1970s. We find that military service significantly increases post-service crime
The Opportunity Costs of Mandatory Military Service: Evidence from a Draft Lottery
Conscription forces young men to serve in the military, irrespective of their opportunity costs. Using random assignment in the Danish draft lottery, we find a negative average effect of peacetime
Military Service and the Civilian Labor Force
The average American military enlistee is likely to differ from the average civilian in employment ambitions and prospects. Current research on veteran wages, however, only examines the effect of


Evaluating the Labor-Market Effects of Compulsory Military Service
Compulsory Military Service in Germany Revisited
This paper estimates the causal impact of compulsory military service on men in Germany using social security and pension administrative data for the cohort of individuals born in the period
Evaluating the Cost of Conscription in The Netherlands
In this article we investigate the effect of military service in the Netherlands on future earnings. Estimating the cost or benefit of military service is complicated by the complex selection that
Conscription and Crime: Evidence from the Argentine Draft Lottery
We estimate the causal effect of mandatory participation in the military service on the involvement in criminal activities. We exploit the random assignment of young men to military service in
Demand for Education and Labor Market Outcomes: Lessons from the Abolition of Compulsory Conscription in France
Before 1997, education was a way for young French men to avoid military service in the army. After the abolition of compulsory conscription in 1997, this incentive to stay on in education
The Civilian Earnings Experience of Vietnam - Era Veterans
In this paper we examine the civilian earnings experience of Vietnam-era veterans and nonveterans between 1968 and 1977. Contrary to the results of other studies indicating sizable premiums for
The Impact of 1970s Repatriates from Africa on the Portuguese Labor Market
This paper examines the labor market effect of the retornados who immigrated to Portugal from Angola and Mozambique in the mid-1970s following Portugal's loss of its African colonies. The retornados
Lifetime Earnings and the Vietnam Era Draft Lottery: Evidence from Social Security Administrative Records
Estimates of the effect of veteran status on civilian earnings may be biased by the fact that certain types of men are more likely to serve in the armed forces. In this paper, an estimation strategy
Long-Term Consequences of Vietnam-Era Conscription: New Estimates Using Social Security Data
We use the draft lottery to construct instrumental variables (IV) estimates of the impact of Vietnam-era military service on veterans' Social Security (SSA) earnings through 2007. We also use SSA