Camouflaging in autism: A systematic review.

  title={Camouflaging in autism: A systematic review.},
  author={Julia Cook and Laura Hull and Laura Crane and William Mandy},
  journal={Clinical psychology review},

Sex differences in predictors and outcomes of camouflaging: Comparing diagnosed autistic, high autistic trait and low autistic trait young adults.

Differences between males and females who have an autism diagnosis, have characteristics of autism but no diagnosis and those with few autistic characteristics are explored, finding that autistic women camouflaged more than all other groups and those who camouflaged most had a lower quality of life.

Brief report: Does autistic community connectedness moderate the relationship between masking and wellbeing?

Background: Masking or camouflaging involves blending in or covering a stigmatised identity, to avoid discrimination and ‘pass’ within society. Autistic people often report masking, both

Sex Differences in Autism Spectrum Disorder: Diagnostic, Neurobiological, and Behavioral Features

The present review looked into the most significant studies that attempted to investigate differences in ASD males and females to shade some light on the peculiar characteristics of this prevalence in terms of diagnosis, imaging, major autistic-like behavior and sex-dependent uniqueness.

A capabilities approach to understanding and supporting autistic adulthood

There is little comprehensive research into autistic adulthood, and even less into the services and supports that are most likely to foster flourishing adult autistic lives. This limited research is

Using EMDR With Autistic Clients: How Do Therapists Adapt?

Overall, therapists emphasized the need for flexibility and responsiveness to the individual client, and the importance of autism-specific knowledge and autism-informed clinical supervision in EMDR therapy.

Exclusion of females in autism research: Empirical evidence for a "leaky" recruitment-to-research pipeline.

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is characterized by challenges in social communication and the presence of repetitive behaviors or restricted interests. Notably, males are four times as likely as

Are there gender-based variations in the presentation of Autism amongst female and male children?

The Questionnaire for Autism Spectrum Conditions (Q-ASC; Attwood, Garnett & Rynkiewicz, 2011) is one of the few screening instruments that includes items designed to assess female-specific ASD-Level

The Current View on the Paradox of Pain in Autism Spectrum Disorders

A model of the pain cycle is proposed that includes the interplay between the molecular and neurophysiological pathways of pain processing and it conscious appraisal that may interfere with pain reactivity and coping in autism.



Is social camouflaging associated with anxiety and depression in autistic adults?

Camouflaging was associated with greater symptoms of generalised anxiety, depression, and social anxiety, although only to a small extent beyond the contribution of autistic traits and age, and no interaction between camouflaging and gender was found.

Associations between social camouflaging and internalizing symptoms in autistic and non-autistic adolescents

It is found that autistic and non-autistic adolescents who reported higher levels of camouflaging also reportedHigher levels of depression, anxiety, and stress, and that camouflaging might be particularly stressful for females, regardless of diagnosis.

Cognitive Predictors of Self‐Reported Camouflaging in Autistic Adolescents

It is suggested that individual differences in executive function ability may underlie variation in the use of camouflaging by adolescents and the relationship between camouflaging and well‐being.

Self-reported camouflaging behaviours used by autistic adults during everyday social interactions

The detailed and specific information provided by autistic adults about camouflaging behaviours generated important new insights into the ways in which autistic people adapt to, cope within and influence the neurotypical (non-autistic) social world.

Quantifying and exploring camouflaging in men and women with autism

Using data from 60 age- and IQ-matched men and women with autism, operationalized camouflaging in adults with autism for the first time as the quantitative discrepancy between the person’s ‘external’ behavioural presentation in social–interpersonal contexts and the person's ‘internal’ status.

Commentary: 'Camouflaging' in autistic people - reflection on Fombonne (2020).

It is argued that establishing construct validity and measurement of different aspects of camouflaging is warranted, and that taking into account sex and gender influences in development is crucial to understand behavioural manifestations of autism.

“Putting on My Best Normal”: Social Camouflaging in Adults with Autism Spectrum Conditions

Examination of camouflaging experiences in 92 adults with ASC found that motivations for camouflaging included fitting in and increasing connections with others, and short- and long-term consequences of camouflage included exhaustion, challenging stereotypes, and threats to self-perception.

Camouflaging in Autism: Examining Sex‐Based and Compensatory Models in Social Cognition and Communication

A more nuanced consideration of camouflaging alongside compensation models reveals subtle differences in cognition, behavior, and affect that may reflect underlying profiles of challenge and strength in youth with ASD.

Understanding and recognising the female phenotype of autism spectrum disorder and the “camouflage” hypothesis: a systematic PRISMA review

PurposeFemales with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) may display superficial social skills which may mask their ASD symptomology impacting on the identification of the disorder – known as the

Social camouflaging in autism: Is it time to lose the mask?

  • W. Mandy
  • Psychology
    Autism : the international journal of research and practice
  • 2019
Many autistic people feel obliged to pretend not to be autistic. They invest considerable effort daily in monitoring and modifying their behaviour to conform to conventions of nonautistic social