Camels, Copper and Donkeys in the Early Iron Age of the Southern Levant: Timna Revisited

  title={Camels, Copper and Donkeys in the Early Iron Age of the Southern Levant: Timna Revisited},
  author={Caroline Grigson},
  pages={100 - 82}
  • C. Grigson
  • Published 1 April 2012
  • Environmental Science
  • Levant
Abstract The camel and equid remains from a copper-smelting site — Site 30 at Timna in the southern Arabah excavated by Rothenberg in the 1970s and recently re-dated to the Iron I/Iron II — are analysed in relation to recently published data on the domestication of the dromedary and on the morphology of the various equid taxa present in the Middle East. It is concluded that camels and donkeys were employed in the distribution of copper from Timna and from mines in the eastern Arabah, prior to… 

The Introduction of Domestic Camels to the Southern Levant: Evidence from the Aravah Valley

Abstract It was recently suggested that the introduction of the camel to the southern Levant occurred in the early Iron Age (late 2nd-early 1st millennia BCE). Our study of faunal remains from Iron

A New Chronological Framework for Iron Age Copper Production at Timna (Israel)

This paper presents the results of the 2009 excavations at Site 30 in the Timna Valley, Israel. The results, coupled with a suite of 11 new radiocarbon dates, fix the chronology of the site between

The fauna of Tell Nebi Mend (Syria) in the Bronze and Iron Age—a diachronic overview. Part 1: Stability and change—animal husbandry

Abstract The analysis of the large sample of domestic animal bones excavated from Tell Nebi Mend in north-west Syria shows that there was remarkably little change in patterns of husbandry from the

Isotopic Evidence for Early Trade in Animals between Old Kingdom Egypt and Canaan

Isotope data from a sacrificial ass and several ovicaprines from Early Bronze Age household deposits at Tell es-Safi/Gath, Israel provide the first concrete evidence of early trade in animals from Egypt to Canaan.

Mammals in the economy of ancient Porphyreon (Lebanon)

An archaeozoological analysis of mammal remains recovered from the dwelling units and streets of ancient Porphyreon excavated in 2009, 2010 and 2012, gives insight into the importance of mammals for

Revolution in the desert : a reassessment of the late bronze/early iron ages in northwestern Arabia and the southern levant

The societal changes that occurred in north-western Arabia and the arid southern Levant between the mid-second and the beginning of the first millennia BCE were so profound that they can be

Gods from north-eastern and north-western Arabia in cuneiform texts from the First Sealand Dynasty, and a cuneiform inscription from Tell en-Naṣbeh, c.1500 BC

A cuneiform archive in the Schoyen collection dated around 1500 BC, mainly in the reign of Ayadaragalama, a king of the First Sealand Dynasty in Babylonia, was published in 2009. The claim of that

The socioeconomic status of Iron Age metalworkers: animal economy in the ‘Slaves’ Hill', Timna, Israel

The popular image of metalworking sites in desert settings envisages armies of slaves engaged in back-breaking labour. This is in conflict with ethnographic evidence indicating that skilled

Faunal remains from recent excavations at Shishan Marsh 1 (SM1), a Late Lower Paleolithic open-air site in the Azraq Basin, Jordan

Abstract Excavations from 2013 to 2015 at the site of Shishan Marsh 1 (SM1) in the Azraq Basin of eastern Jordan have yielded substantial late middle Pleistocene lithic assemblages in association



Timna revisited: Egyptian chronology and the copper mines of the southern Arabah

This article studies the chronology of the New Kingdom Egyptian copper mining in the southern Arabah valley, and particularly Timna, traditionally dated in the 13th-12th centuries BCE. A reassessment

The beginning of Iron Age copper production in the southern Levant: new evidence from Khirbat al-Jariya, Faynan, Jordan

The authors have explored the workplace and house of copper workers of the early Iron Age (twelfth to tenth century BC) in Jordan's Wadi Faynan copper ore district, showing that it belongs in time

Sedentism in the Early Bronze IV: A Faunal Perspective

  • L. Horwitz
  • History
    Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research
  • 1989
Faunal assemblages from the Refaim Valley, Israel, dating to the Early Bronze IV (also termed Middle Bronze I/Intermediate Bronze Age) were analyzed. The complex at which remains were found comprised

The Iron Age Pottery from Khirbat en-Nahas, Jordan: A Preliminary Study

  • N. SmithT. Levy
  • History
    Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research
  • 2008
The 2002 excavations at the Iron Age copper metal production center of Khirbat en-Nahas have sparked lively scholarly debate concerning the dating of the Iron Age in southern Jordan as well as the

Camel and horse skeletons from protohistoric graves at Mleiha in the Emirate of Sharjah (U.A.E.)

Animal burials from a graveyard at Mleiha in the interior of the Sharjah Emirate (U.A.E.) are described and documented with regard to the archaeozoology of the represented species. These are two

The Iron I-IIA in the Highlands and Beyond: 14C Anchors, Pottery Phases and The Shoshenq I Campaign

Abstract The article discusses the relative order of Iron I and Iron IIA pottery assemblages in three regions: the highlands, the northern valleys and the south (the Beer-sheba Valley and the

The Canaanite Cultic Milieu: The Zooarchaeological Evidence from Tel Haror, Israel

The author presents a report on Canaanite animal husbandry practices, diet, butchery methods, and animal sacrificial rituals. This information comes primarily from faunal remains that were retrieved

Botai and the Origins of Horse Domestication

Abstract This paper explores some issues related to the origins of horse domestication. First, it focuses on methodological problems relevant to existing work. Then, ethnoarchaeological and

Late Pleistocene and Holocene equid remains from Israel

Equid remains–mostly isolated teeth–from archaeological sites in Israel are described. Particular attention is paid to dental enamel fold morphology and criteria are established tor separating

IV. Faunal Remains from Shams ed-Din Tannira, a Halafian Site in Northern Syria

Reconstitution de l'environnement a partir de l'etude de 1730 pieces osseuses. Interpretation paleoeconomique. Le role de la chasse est mis en evidence par le nombre important de restes d'animaux