Calponin, caldesmon, and chromatophores: The smooth muscle connection

  title={Calponin, caldesmon, and chromatophores: The smooth muscle connection},
  author={Victor Benno Meyer-Rochow and Mar Royuela},
  journal={Microscopy Research and Technique},
Observations on pigment translocations in fish chromatophores and speculations on the chemo‐mechanical transduction processes responsible for the recorded chromatosome motilities are briefly reviewed. The presence of the two smooth muscle proteins caldesmon and calponin is confirmed by immunocytochemistry for melanophores and iridophores of the Antarctic fishes Pagothenia borchgrevinki and Trematomus bernacchii. Troponin, a typical vertebrate skeletal muscle protein is absent from the… 

Immunocytochemically determined regulatory proteins, troponin, calponin and caldesmon, may occur together in the musculature of a Gordian worm (Ecdysozoa, Cycloneuralia, Nematomorpha)

Based on an electron microscopic immunocytochemical study of the body wall musculature in a Gordian worm, the three regulatory muscle proteins troponin, calponin and caldesmon appear to be present.

First immunocytochemical study of echinoderm smooth muscle: the Antarctic cushionstar Odontaster validus Koehler (Echinodermata, Asteroidea)

The results suggest that the thin filaments of the starfish smooth muscle are similar to those of the vertebrate muscle, but that the thick filaments differ from those of vertebrates and possess traits that are also seen in the muscle organization of invertebrates.

Melanophores: Smooth Muscle Cells in Disguise

The biochemical events underlying melanosome dispersion is analogous to those for smooth muscle relaxation: both processes result from increase in cAMP levels and require the presence of extracellular Ca2+ for their action.

Non‐vascular smooth muscle cells in the human choroid: distribution, development and further characterization

  • C. May
  • Medicine, Biology
    Journal of anatomy
  • 2005
The NVSMC show a distinct distribution that might reflect different aspects of their function in the choroid and suprachoroid, and all cells could be histochemically characterized as truly contractile.

Not Just an Empty Cavity: the Inter-Rhabdomeral Space in the Jamaican Cavefly Neoditomyia farri (Diptera, Mycetophilidae)

Contrary to most other Diptera, the inter-rhabdomeral spaces of the retina of the Jamaican cavefly Neoditomya farri are filled neither by extracellular matrix nor dense cytoplasmic material, but a foamy organization of loose vacuoles appears to keep the rhabdomeres of retinula cells 7 and 8 in place.

Transcriptomics of a Giant Freshwater Prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii): De Novo Assembly, Annotation and Marker Discovery

The transcriptome data reported here should provide an invaluable resource for improving the understanding of this species' genome structure and biology and instruct future functional studies to manipulate or select for genes influencing growth that should find practical applications in aquaculture breeding programs.



Calponin is localised in both the contractile apparatus and the cytoskeleton of smooth muscle cells.

It is suggested that calponin, together with a Ca(2+)-receptor protein, could just as likely serve a role in the cytoskeleton of smooth muscle as in the contractile apparatus.

Functional interrelationship between calponin and caldesmon.

It is shown that calponin and caldesmon could bind simultaneously to F-actin when used in subsaturating amounts, whereas each one used in excess caused displacement of the other from the complex with F-Actin.

The molecular anatomy of caldesmon.

The objective of this Review is to describe the structure of the caldesmon molecule and to try and identify the domains which are responsible for its multiple functional properties.

Ultrastructure of microtubules in dermal melanophores and spinal nerve of the Antarctic teleost Pagothenia borchgrevinki

The results indicate that this fish has a cold-resistant microtubule system on which melanosome movements depend, and unlike those in melanophores, microtubules in the axons of spinal nerves are of uniform thickness and often contain an electron-dense core in the center.

Immunocytochemical observations on muscle cell proteins in the antarctic mussel shrimp Acetabulastoma sp. (Crustacea, Ostracoda)

The presence and distribution of proteins such as myosin, troponin, and nebulin as well as the absence of caldesmon and calponin suggest that despite its small size and parasitic life style, Acetabulastoma sp.

Cytoskeletal architecture of dermal chromatophores of the freshwater teleost Oryzias latipes.

Cytoskeletal construction of dermal chromatophores of Oryzias latipes was studied by immunofluorescence microscopy and melanophores and xanthophores appeared to be more resistant in respect to the maintenance of cell morphology.

Cytomatrix in chromatophores

Recent discoveries from studies of intracellular transport in chromatophores are emphasized, especially with regard to their functional significance.

Kinesin is responsible for centrifugal movement of pigment granules in melanophores.

Immunoblotting of melanophore extracts showed that the kinesin antibody reacted in these cells with a single protein component with a molecular mass of 135 kDa that is responsible for the movement of pigment granules from the center to the periphery of the melanophores.

Dermal and epidermal chromatophores of the Antarctic teleost Trematomus bernacchii.

The physiological response and ultrastructure of the pigment cells of Trematomus bernacchii, an Antarctic teleost that lives under the sea ice north of the Ross Ice Shelf, were studied and the occurrence of epidermal xanthophore is reported for the first time in fish.

Cytophysiology of fish chromatophores

  • R. Fujii
  • Biology, Environmental Science
  • 1993