Caloric restriction, longevity and aging: Recent contributions from human and non-human primate studies

  title={Caloric restriction, longevity and aging: Recent contributions from human and non-human primate studies},
  author={Fabien Pifferi and Fabienne Aujard},
  journal={Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology and Biological Psychiatry},
  • F. Pifferi, F. Aujard
  • Published 20 December 2019
  • Medicine, Biology
  • Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology and Biological Psychiatry
The Effects of Caloric Restriction and/or Intermittent Fasting on Bone Health
This mini-review summarizes the available information regarding the impact of caloric restriction (CR) and/ or intermittent fasting (IF) on bone health, highlighting areas of consistency and discrepancy and suggesting future areas of study to advance the understanding of CR and/or IF onBone health.
Overweight Management through Mild Caloric Restriction in Multigenerational Long-Tailed Macaque Breeding Groups
Mild CR targeted the right individuals, i.e., overweight adults, and had no adverse effects on the variables examined in this study, implying that mild CR can be a valuable overweight management strategy in group-housed NHPs.
Effect of Chronic Moderate Caloric Restriction on the Reproductive Function in Aged Male Wistar Rats
It is suggested that beginning CR at the age of maturity reestablishes the behavioral sexual response and reproductive function in older animals after 6 months of CR and improves endocrine functioning during aging.
Extending lifespan by modulating the growth hormone/insulin-like growth factor-1 axis: coming of age
Progress made in the years of aging research have allowed the opportunity to explore potential interventions to slow aging and extend healthy lifespan. Studies performed in yeast, worms, flies and
Effectiveness of high cardiorespiratory fitness in cardiometabolic protection in prediabetic rats
Either short-term caloric restriction or exercise followed by weight maintenance ameliorated cardiometabolic impairment in prediabetes, as indicated by increased insulin sensitivity, improved blood lipid profile, improved mitochondrial function and oxidative phosphorylation, reduced oxidative stress and inflammation, and improved cardiac function.
The marmoset as an important primate model for longitudinal studies of neurocognitive aging.
A longitudinal study of marmosets tested on reversal learning starting in middle-age found that, on average, the group ofMarmosets declined in cognitive performance around 8 years of age, however, highly variable patterns of cognitive aging trajectories across individuals were found.
Molecular Mechanisms of Exercise and Healthspan
The current evidence and opinions about regular exercise promoting healthspan through enhancing the functionality of the authors' organ systems and preventing diseases are reviewed.
Repurposing drugs to fight aging: The difficult path from bench to bedside
Recent advances and challenges in the field of repurposing widely used conventional pharmaceuticals to target the aging process are summarized and discussed.
Aging and age‐related diseases: from mechanisms to therapeutic strategies
The status of aging research and the development of potential drugs for aging-related diseases, such as metformin, rapamycin, resveratrol, senolytics, as well as caloric restriction, are summarized.


Caloric restriction in humans: Potential pitfalls and health concerns
Caloric restriction improves health and survival of rhesus monkeys
Comparisons of longitudinal data from two parallel studies of caloric restriction in rhesus monkeys confirm that health benefits of CR are conserved in monkeys and suggest that CR mechanisms are likely translatable to human health.
Calorie restriction in humans: An update
Impact of caloric restriction on health and survival in rhesus monkeys from the NIA study
A separation between health effects, morbidity and mortality, and similar to what has been shown in rodents, study design, husbandry and diet composition may strongly affect the life-prolonging effect of CR in a long-lived nonhuman primate is suggested.
Recent advances in calorie restriction research on aging
Promoting healthspan and lifespan with caloric restriction in primates
Efforts should be made in combining nutrition-based clinical protocols with therapeutic and/or behavioral interventions to aim for synergetic effects, and therefore delay the onset of age-related diseases without adverse effects.
Caloric restriction reduces age-related and all-cause mortality in rhesus monkeys
It is shown that CR significantly improves age-related and all-cause survival in monkeys on a long-term ~30% restricted diet since young adulthood, and indicates that the benefits of CR on ageing are conserved in primates.
Caloric Restriction Study Design Limitations in Rodent and Nonhuman Primate Studies
This review focuses on the four methodological differences identified in a recent comparative report from the National Institute on Aging and University of Wisconsin nonhuman primate studies, namely feeding regimen, diet composition, age of onset, and genetics.
Caloric Restriction Delays Disease Onset and Mortality in Rhesus Monkeys
Findings of a 20-year longitudinal adult-onset CR study in rhesus monkeys aimed at filling this critical gap in aging research demonstrate that CR slows aging in a primate species.
Do‐It‐Yourself Calorie Restriction: The Risks of Simplistically Translating Findings in Animal Models to Humans
  • É. Le Bourg, L. Redman
  • Psychology
    BioEssays : news and reviews in molecular, cellular and developmental biology
  • 2018
The two authors of the present article do not share the same view regarding the possible CR effect in humans, so it is important to express some statements about CR in humans to avoid any misinterpretation or inappropriate extrapolation of results.