Caloric Restriction, the Traditional Okinawan Diet, and Healthy Aging

@article{Willcox2007CaloricRT,
  title={Caloric Restriction, the Traditional Okinawan Diet, and Healthy Aging},
  author={Bradley John Willcox and D. Craig Willcox and Hidemi Todoriki and Akira Fujiyoshi and Katsuhiko Yano and Qimei He and J. David Curb and Makoto Suzuki},
  journal={Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences},
  year={2007},
  volume={1114}
}
Long-term caloric restriction (CR) is a robust means of reducing age-related diseases and extending life span in multiple species, but the effects in humans are unknown. [] Key Method Analyses included traditional diet composition, energy intake, energy expenditure, anthropometry, plasma DHEA, mortality from age-related diseases, and current survival patterns. Findings include low caloric intake and negative energy balance at younger ages, little weight gain with age, life-long low BMI, relatively high…
Caloric restriction, caloric restriction mimetics, and healthy aging in Okinawa: controversies and clinical implications
TLDR
Both caloric restriction and traditional Okinawan functional foods with caloric restriction-mimetic properties likely had roles in the extended healthspan and lifespan of the Okinawans.
Okinawa: A Naturally Calorie Restricted Population
TLDR
Medical, epidemiologic and demographic data lend support to a naturally occurring CR-like phenomenon in Okinawa with health and longevity-enhancing consequences similar to that seen in animal models of CR.
Calorie restriction in humans: An update
Will calorie restriction work in humans?
TLDR
Accumulating data indicate that moderate CR with adequate nutrition has a powerful protective effect against obesity, type 2 diabetes, inflammation, hypertension, cardiovascular disease and reduces metabolic risk factors associated with cancer.
Science Journals — AAAS
TLDR
Several unresolvedquestions suggest caution when considering whether to recommend or implement any of these diets among the healthy general public, including CR, intermittent fasting, fasting-mimicking diets, ketogenic diets, time-restricted feeding, protein restriction, and essential amino acid restriction.
Impact of caloric and dietary restriction regimens on markers of health and longevity in humans and animals: a summary of available findings
TLDR
The following religious fasting periods are featured in this review: 1) Islamic Ramadan; 2) the three principal fasting periods of Greek Orthodox Christianity (Nativity, Lent, and the Assumption); and 3) the Biblical-based Daniel Fast.
The Okinawan Diet: Health Implications of a Low-Calorie, Nutrient-Dense, Antioxidant-Rich Dietary Pattern Low in Glycemic Load
TLDR
A comparison of the nutrient profiles of the three dietary patterns shows that the traditional Okinawan diet is the lowest in fat intake, particularly in terms of saturated fat, and highest in carbohydrate intake, in keeping with the very high intake of antioxidant-rich yet calorie-poor orange-yellow root vegetables, such as sweet potatoes, and green leafy vegetables.
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References

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The absence of adequate information on the effects of good-quality, calorie-restricted diets in nonobese humans reflects the difficulties involved in conducting long-term studies in an environment so conducive to overfeeding.
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Calorie restriction in adult men and women causes beneficial metabolic, hormonal, and functional changes, but the precise amount of calorie intake or body fat mass associated with optimal health and maximum longevity in humans is not known.
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TLDR
Whether there are physiologic effects that occur with CR in humans that could plausibly explain the observed longevity of laboratory animals associated with CR is examined and recommendations regarding further epidemiologic research are provided to help clarify unanswered questions.
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TLDR
It appears that most of the actions of food restriction are due to its ability to slow the primary aging processes, and this action to relate to the restriction of calories rather than specific nutrients (e.g., protein or fat or minerals).
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TLDR
It appears that long-term CR has a powerful protective effect against atherosclerosis, supported by the finding of a low carotid artery IMT.
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TLDR
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