An improved instrument is described for the measurement of liver and kidney cadmium by in vivo neutron activation analysis in both occupationally and environmentally exposed persons. Detailed calibrations of the instrument used in a study of 83 male workers at a cadmium production plant are give. The importance of accurate organ localisation by ultrasound is stressed, without which errors of 40 and 25% in individual and group kidney measurements, respectively, can occur. The detection limit (2 SD of the background) is 2.2 mg cadmium in the kidney and 1.5 micrograms g-1 (wet weight) in the liver for a local dose of 4.7 mSv. This instrument therefore combines the advantages of portability with high sensitivity of detection of cadmium.