Calibration and characterization of the IceCube photomultiplier tube

  title={Calibration and characterization of the IceCube photomultiplier tube},
  author={T. I. C. R. Abbasi and Y. Abdou and T. Abu-Zayyad and J. Adams and J. Aguilar and M. Ahlers and K. Andeen and J. Auffenberg and X. Bai and M. Baker and S. Barwick and R. Bay and J. Alba and K. Beattie and J. Beatty and S. Bechet and J. Becker and K. Becker and M. Benabderrahmane and J. Berdermann and P. Berghaus and D. Berley and E. Bernardini and D. Bertrand and D. Besson and M. Bissok and E. Blaufuss and D. Boersma and C. Bohm and O. Botner and L. Bradley and J. Braun and S. Buitink and M. Carson and D. Chirkin and B. Christy and J. Clem and S. Cohen and C. Colnard and D. Cowen and M. D'agostino and M. Danninger and C. Clercq and L. Demirors and O. Depaepe and F. Descamps and P. Desiati and G. Vries-Uiterweerd and T. DeYoung and J. C. D'iaz-V'elez and J. Dreyer and J. Dumm and M. Duvoort and R. Ehrlich and J. Eisch and R. Ellsworth and O. Engdegaard and S. Euler and P. Evenson and O. Fadiran and A. Fazely and T. Feusels and K. Filimonov and C. Finley and M. Foerster and B. Fox and A. Franckowiak and R. Franke and T. Gaisser and J. Gallagher and R. Ganugapati and M. Geisler and L. Gerhardt and L. Gladstone and A. Goldschmidt and J. Goodman and D. Grant and T. Griesel and A. Gro{\ss} and S. Grullon and R. Gunasingha and M. Gurtner and C. Ha and A. Hallgren and F. Halzen and K. Han and K. Hanson and Y. Hasegawa and J. Haugen and K. Helbing and P. Herquet and S. Hickford and G. Hill and K. Hoffman and A. Homeier and K. Hoshina and Daan Hubert and W. Huelsnitz and J. Hulss and P. O. Hulth and K. Hultqvist and S. Hussain and R. Imlay and M. Inaba and A. Ishihara and J. Jacobsen and G. Japaridze and H. Johansson and J. Joseph and K. Kampert and A. Kappes and T. Karg and A. Karle and J. Kelley and N. Kemming and P. Kenny and J. Kiryluk and F. Kislat and N. Kitamura and S. Klein and S. Knops and G. Kohnen and H. Kolanoski and L. Kopke and D. Koskinen and M. Kowalski and T. Kowarik and M. Krasberg and T. Krings and G. Kroll and K. Kuehn and T. Kuwabara and M. Labare and S. Lafebre and K. Laihem and H. Landsman and R. Lauer and A. Laundrie and R. Lehmann and D. Lennarz and J. Lunemann and J. Madsen and P. Majumdar and R. Maruyama and K. Mase and H. Matis and M. Matusik and K. Meagher and M. Merck and P. M'esz'aros and T. Meures and E. Middell and N. Milke and H. Miyamoto and T. Montaruli and R. Morse and S. Movit and R. Nahnhauer and J. Nam and U. Naumann and P. Niessen and D. Nygren and S. Odrowski and A. Olivas and M. Olivo and M. Ono and S. Panknin and L. Paul and C. D. L. Heros and J. Petrovic and A. Piegsa and D. Pieloth and A. Pohl and R. Porrata and J. Posselt and P. Price and M. Prikockis and G. Przybylski and K. Rawlins and P. Redl and E. Resconi and W. Rhode and M. Ribordy and A. Rizzo and P. Robl and J. P. Rodrigues and P. Roth and F. Rothmaier and C. Rott and C. Roucelle and D. Rutledge and B. Ruzybayev and D. Ryckbosch and H. Sander and P. Sandstrom and S. Sarkar and K. Schatto and S. Schlenstedt and T. Schmidt and D. Schneider and A. Schukraft and A. Schultes and O. Schulz and M. Schunck and D. Seckel and B. Semburg and S. Seo and Y. Sestayo and S. Seunarine and A. Silvestri and A. Slipak and G. Spiczak and C. Spiering and M. Stamatikos and T. Stanev and G. Stephens and T. Stezelberger and R. Stokstad and S. Stoyanov and E. Strahler and T. Straszheim and G. Sullivan and Q. Swillens and I. Taboada and A. Tamburro and O. Tarasova and A. Tepe and S. Ter-Antonyan and C. Terranova and S. Tilav and P. A. Toale and D. Tosi and D. Turcan and N. Eijndhoven and J. Vandenbroucke and A. Overloop and J. Santen and B. Voigt and D. Wahl and C. Walck and T. Waldenmaier and M. Wallraff and M. Walter and C. Wendt and S. Westerhoff and N. Whitehorn and K. Wiebe and C. Wiebusch and G. Wikstrom and D. Williams and R. Wischnewski and H. Wissing and K. Woschnagg and C. Xu and X. Xu and G. Yodh and S. Yoshida and P. Zarzhitsky},
  journal={Nuclear Instruments \& Methods in Physics Research Section A-accelerators Spectrometers Detectors and Associated Equipment},
  • T. I. C. R. Abbasi, Y. Abdou, +255 authors P. Zarzhitsky
  • Published 2010
  • Physics
  • Nuclear Instruments & Methods in Physics Research Section A-accelerators Spectrometers Detectors and Associated Equipment
Over 5000 PMTs are being deployed at the South Pole to compose the IceCube neutrino observatory. Many are placed deep in the ice to detect Cherenkov light emitted by the products of high-energy neutrino interactions, and others are frozen into tanks on the surface to detect particles from atmospheric cosmic ray showers. IceCube is using the 10-in. diameter R7081-02 made by Hamamatsu Photonics. This paper describes the laboratory characterization and calibration of these PMTs before deployment… Expand
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