# Calculation of distances in cosmological models with small-scale inhomogeneities and their use in observational cosmology: a review

@inproceedings{Helbig2019CalculationOD, title={Calculation of distances in cosmological models with small-scale inhomogeneities and their use in observational cosmology: a review}, author={Phillip Helbig}, year={2019} }

The Universe is not completely homogeneous. Even if it is sufficiently so on large scales, it is very inhomogeneous at small scales, and this has an effect on light propagation, so that the distance as a function of redshift, which in many cases is defined via light propagation, can differ from the homogeneous case. Simple models can take this into account. I review the history of this idea, its generalization to a wide variety of cosmological models, analytic solutions of simple models…

## 3 Citations

### Theoretical and numerical perspectives on cosmic distance averages

- PhysicsAstronomy & Astrophysics
- 2021

The interpretation of cosmological observations relies on a notion of average Universe, which is usually taken as the homogeneous and isotropic Friedmann-Lema\^itre-Robertson-Walker (FLRW) model.…

### On the relationship between mean observations, spatial averages and the Dyer-Roeder approximation in Einstein-Straus models

- PhysicsJournal of Cosmology and Astroparticle Physics
- 2020

The redshift and redshift-distance relation in different Einstein-Straus models are considered. Specifically, the mean of these observables along 1000 light rays in different specific models are…

### Mapping the inhomogeneous Universe with standard sirens: degeneracy between inhomogeneity and modified gravity theories

- Physics
- 2020

The detection of gravitational waves (GWs) and an accompanying electromagnetic (E/M) counterpart have been suggested as a future probe for cosmology and theories of gravity. In this paper, we present…

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