Calcium signaling in cardiac ventricular myocytes.

  title={Calcium signaling in cardiac ventricular myocytes.},
  author={Donald M. Bers and Tao Guo},
  journal={Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences},
Calcium (Ca) is a multifunctional regulator of diverse cellular functions. In cardiac muscle Ca is a direct central mediator of electrical activation, ion channel gating, and excitation-contraction (E-C) coupling that all occur on the millisecond time scale. The key amplification step in E-C coupling is under tight control of very local [Ca]. Ca also directly activates signaling via kinases and phosphatases (e.g., Ca-calmodulin-dependent protein kinase [CaMKII] and calcineurin) that occur over… CONTINUE READING