Calcium regulation of growth and differentiation of mouse epidermal cells in culture

@article{Hennings1980CalciumRO,
  title={Calcium regulation of growth and differentiation of mouse epidermal cells in culture},
  author={Henry Hennings and Delores Michael and Christina W Cheng and Peter M. Steinert and K. L. Holbrook and Stuart H. Yuspa},
  journal={Cell},
  year={1980},
  volume={19},
  pages={245-254}
}
Modification of the ionic calcium concentration in the culture medium markedly alters the pattern of proliferation and differentiation in cultured mouse epidermal cells. When medium calcium is lowered to 0.05--0.1 mM, keratinocytes proliferate rapidly with a high growth fraction and do not stratify, but continue to synthesize keratin. The cells grow as a monolayer for several months and can be subcultured and cloned in low Ca++ medium. Ultrastructural examination of cells cultured under low Ca… 
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The results indicate that the calcium switch is followed by a strong reduction in cell flux from G1 whereas the majority of the cells that had left G1 at the time of the switch completed one cell division before cessation of all proliferative activity.
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A gradient of free Ca2+ exists in mouse and human epidermis in which the Ca2+ environment of the basal cell layer is substantially below serum Ca2+ while that of the granular cell layer is unusually
Magnesium and phosphate enrichment of culture medium stimulates the proliferation of epidermal cells from newborn and adult mice
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The medium containing an optimal phosphate concentration prevented the cell detachment caused by the standard low (1 mM) phosphate medium, and in combination with an elevated magnesium content it markedly increased both DNA synthesis rates and DNA content of the adult cell cultures.
Differential effects of retinoids on DNA synthesis in calcium-regulated murine epidermal keratinocyte cultures.
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The manipulated rate of proliferation of murine epidermal keratinocytes was manipulated to suggest that Ca++ and low growth factor-regulated keratinocyte cultures are useful for studying the mechanism of hyperproliferation and retinoid actions.
Signal Transduction for Proliferation and Differentiation in Keratinocytes
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Specific Cao and Cai determine the expression of individual markers of keratinocyte differentiation in vitro and may account for the importance of the Ca2+ gradient for maintaining regulated growth and differentiation of the epidermis in vivo.
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