Voltage‐gated calcium channels and their auxiliary subunits: physiology and pathophysiology and pharmacology
- Annette C. Dolphin
- The Journal of physiology
Calcium ions play a crucial role in the regulation of the heart beat. During each action potential Ca2+ ions flow into the cell and are directly and indirectly involved in generation of pacemaker potentials and of contractile force. Adrenergic and cholinergic neurotransmitters modulate Ca2+ influx. The most detailed analysis has been made on the mechanism of the β-adrenergic effect on calcium channels in cardiac cell membranes. This is briefly summarized in a personal account, while for more detailed information the reader is referred to more extensive recent reviews16, 22.