Calcium and phosphorus requirements of the laying hen.

@article{Summers1976CalciumAP,
  title={Calcium and phosphorus requirements of the laying hen.},
  author={John D. Summers and R. R. Grandhi and Steve Leeson},
  journal={Poultry science},
  year={1976},
  volume={55 1},
  pages={
          402-13
        }
}
Three experiments were conducted; the first studied the influence of pre-laying dietary calcium levels on subsequent hen performance, while in the second and third the influence of various levels of dietary calcium and phosphorus on performance, egg shell quality and calcium and phosphorus retention were investigated. Pre-dietary calcium levels (0.5 and 1.5%) resulted in a significant strain X diet interaction for weight gain up to commencement of lay but did not influence production, feed… Expand
The Effect of Dietary Levels of Calcium and Phosphorus on Performance and Retention of These Nutrients by Laying Hens
Abstract The first experiment utilized three levels of calcium (3.5, 4.5, and 5.5%) and three levels of available phosphorus (.24, .44, and .64%). The birds were 56 weeks old at the beginning of theExpand
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Abstract A 3 × 3 factorial experiment with 324 laying hens was conducted for 280 days to examine the effect of calcium and available phosphorus on biological responses associated with egg production.Expand
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Influence of increasing dietary calcium and magnesium levels on performance, mineral metabolism, and egg mineral content of laying hens.
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Effects of dietary fat level on laying hens fed various concentrations of calcium.
TLDR
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INFLUENCE OF PRELAY AND EARLY.LAY DIETARY CALCIUM CONCENTRATION ON PERFORMANCE AND BONE INTEGRITY OF LEGHORN PULLETS
TLDR
Two trials were conducted to note the pullets' response to diet concentrations of calcium from 0.9 to 3.5% fed from 19 wk to day of producing their 4th egg, which indicated a small increase in calcium retention in response to increased diet calcium. Expand
Influence of phase feeding available phosphorus on egg production characteristics, carcass phosphorus content, and serum inorganic phosphorus levels of three commercial layer strains.
TLDR
An experiment was conducted to obtain information on the concept of progressively decreasing dietary phosphorus levels (phase feeding) on the performance of three different commercial layer strains and found that efficiency of feed utilization was significantly superior for hens phase-fed AP compared with hens fed the other AP treatments. Expand
Effects of added dietary fat and phosphorus on the performance and egg quality of laying hens subjected to a constant high environmental temperature.
TLDR
The beneficial effect of supplemental fat on hen performance was evident in Experiment 1 but not in Experiment 2, indicating that nutrients were oriented more toward supporting egg production rather than maintaining the BW at the postpeak stage. Expand
The Effects of Phased Feeding Protein and Calcium on Egg Weight and Shell Quality with Four Strains of White Leghorn Hens
TLDR
The strain of hen had significant effects on egg production, feed efficiency, egg weight, shell quality, and mortality but not on uncollectible eggs. Expand
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References

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Estimation of calcium and phosphorus requirement in laying hens by balance techniques
Balance studies with Leghorn hens in good production were conducted to estimate their calcium and phosphorus requirement. The requirement, defined as the dietary level of calcium that maintainedExpand
Observations on the calcium balance of laying hens
Two groups of Single Comb White Leghorn pullets, 4 months of age, were fed 1·85 and 2·70% calcium in the diet, respectively, for twelve consecutive periods, each consisting of 4 weeks. Records of eggExpand
On the phosphorus requirements of chickens for egg production and hatchability.
TLDR
The results indicated that the inclusion of supplementary phosphorus did not improve egg production or feed required per dozen eggs, and suggest the possibility that egg weight loss after 14 days’ incubation may have been influenced by supplementary phosphorus. Expand
The Phosphorus Requirements of Growing Chickens and Laying Pullets Fed Practical Rations
TLDR
The ratio of calcium to phosphorus was not of prime importance to the growing chicken when vitamin D was present at an optimal level, but the absolute amounts of calcium and phosphorus were important for optimal growth and bone ash. Expand
The Effect of Low Phosphorus Rations on Egg Production and Hatchability
TLDR
The phosphorus requirements of laying pullets have not been extensively studied and mineral supplements should be fed ad libitum due to the disparity in the calcium and phosphorus requirements as found by various investigators. Expand
Influence of dietary phosphorus on shell quality 1
TLDR
Egg production was found to be improved in the birds fed the low phosphorus diets and birds housed on litter showed an inverse relationship between shell quality and the level of dietary phosphorus. Expand
Calcium Metabolism of Pullets at the Onset of Egg Production, as Influenced by Dietary Calcium Level
TLDR
The skeleton of the laying hen has been shown by many investigators to serve as a calcium store which may be utilized for the formation of the egg shell and the possibility that other segments of bone, in addition to medullary bone, may also take part in this pre-laying storage of calcium has not been thoroughly investigated. Expand
The Calcium and Phosphorus Balance of Laying Hens
Abstract THE importance of an adequate supply of calcium for the laying hen in a form that can be utilized, particularly in egg shell formation, is appreciated when it is realized that a threeExpand
The Effect of the Pre-Laying Level of Calcium on the Performance of White Leghorn Pullets
TLDR
It is shown that the requirement of the growing chick for calcium is very definitely dependent upon the level of phosphorus and vitamin D in the ration. Expand
The Calcium Requirements of Laying Hens and Effects of Dietary Oyster Shell Upon Egg Shell Quality
TLDR
The Subcommittee on Poultry Nutrition of the National Research Council revised its recommended calcium requirement for laying hens in 1962 and a level of 2.75% was adopted, based on the many reports indicating the need for more calcium than the 2.25% previously recommended. Expand
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