Calcitonin gene-related peptide is a potent vasodilator

@article{Brain1985CalcitoninGP,
  title={Calcitonin gene-related peptide is a potent vasodilator},
  author={Susan Diana Brain and Trevor J. Williams and John R. Tippins and Howard R. Morris and Iain Macintyre},
  journal={Nature},
  year={1985},
  volume={313},
  pages={54-56}
}
A novel peptide, calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), has been predicted to result from alternative processing of the primary RNA transcript of the calcitonin gene in the rat1,2. Several lines of evidence suggest that CGRP is a transmitter in the central and peripheral nervous system2–4. Human CGRP has been isolated and characterized5, and shown to have potent effects on the heart6. The observations presented here indicate that human and rat CGRP also have potent effects on blood vessels… 

Substance P regulates the vasodilator activity of calcitonin gene-related peptide

TLDR
It is demonstrated that injection of C GRP with substance P into human skin converts the long-lasting vasodilatation induced by CGRP into a transient response and provides evidence for an in vivo role for mast cell proteases.

Potent vasodilator activity of calcitonin gene-related peptide in human skin.

TLDR
CGRP is an extremely potent vasodilator and if released into the circulation, or locally from peripheral nerve endings, it could have a role in the regulation of blood flow in both physiologic and pathologic conditions; CGRP may be the endogenous mediator of the flare in the triple response.

The contribution of calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) to neurogenic vasodilator responses

TLDR
It is suggested that nitric oxide is required for either the release of endogenous CGRP from capsaicin-sensitive nerves or its subsequent activity, as shown in the results show that increased blood flow in rabbit skin caused by exogenous C GRP is independent of nitrics.

Mechanism of Vascular Relaxation by the Calcitonin Gene‐Related Peptide a

  • I. Marshall
  • Biology, Medicine
    Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
  • 1992
TLDR
Observations from clinical trials which demonstrated that human a-CGRP helped prevent the onset of cerebral vasospasm in patients who had had subarachnoid hemorrhage support a potential physiological role for CGRP in the control of blood pressure.

Calcitonin Gene-Related Peptide and Hypertension

TLDR
There are two forms of CGRP, α and β, which differ in only two amino acids in rats and three in humans, but the biological activities of both peptides are similar in most vascular beds.

Arterial dilations in response to calcitonin gene-related peptide involve activation of K+ channels

TLDR
It is reported that arterial dilations in response to CGRP are partially reversed by blockers of the ATP-sensitive potassium channel (KATP), glibenclamide10–12 and barium10,13 and proposed that activation of KATP channels underlies a substantial part of the relaxation produced by C GRP.

Evidence That Calcitonin Gene—Related Peptide Contributes to Inflammation in the Skin and Joint a

TLDR
CGRP increased blood flow in rabbit skin but had no direct effect on edema formation in rat or rabbit skin or in the rat knee joint, however, CGRP produced significant potentiation of edema Formation when co-injected with histamine, a potent mediator of increased vascular permeability.

Gene transfer of calcitonin gene-related peptide to cerebral arteries.

Overexpression of calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), an extremely potent vasodilator, to blood vessels is a possible strategy for prevention of vasospasm. We constructed an adenoviral vector

PHARMACOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF CALCITONIN GENE RELATED PEPTIDE ( CGRP )

TLDR
A preliminary understanding of the diverse biological effects of the CGRP in various systems with a special emphasize on its role in path physiological changes is provided.
...

References

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Release of the predicted calcitonin gene-related peptide from cultured rat trigeminal ganglion cells

TLDR
It is reported here that immunoreactive CGRP is spontaneously released by cultured trigeminal ganglion cells and that secretion is stimulated by incubation in high potassium medium in a calcium-dependent fashion.

Isolation and characterization of human calcitonin gene-related peptide

The rat calcitonin gene has recently been shown to encode a novel peptide (rat calcitonin gene-related peptide, rCGRP) thought to be produced in nervous tissue after tissue-specific RNA

VASOACTIVE INTESTINAL POLYPEPTIDE IS MORE POTENT THAN PROSTAGLANDIN E2 AS A VASODILATOR AND OEDEMA POTENTIATOR IN RABBIT SKIN

  • T. Williams
  • Medicine, Biology
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TLDR
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TLDR
It is reported here that CGRP acts in the central nervous system to stimulate selectively noradrenergic sympathetic outflow and is identified immunocytochemically throughout the central and peripheral nervous systems.

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TLDR
The approach described here permits the application of recombinant DNA technology to analyses of complex neurobiological systems in the absence of prior structural or biological information.

Role of prostaglandin-mediated vasodilatation in inflammation

TLDR
The mode of action of prostaglandins in inflammation is re-examined by measuring both increased blood flow and plasma exudation and the results presented here suggest that the mediation of vasodilatation and increased vascular permeability should be considered separately.

The obligatory role of endothelial cells in the relaxation of arterial smooth muscle by acetylcholine

TLDR
It is demonstrated that relaxation of isolated preparations of rabbit thoracic aorta and other blood vessels by ACh requires the presence of endothelial cells, and that ACh, acting on muscarinic receptors of these cells, stimulates release of a substance(s) that causes relaxation of the vascular smooth muscle.

PROSTAGLANDIN E2, PROSTAGLANDIN I2 AND THE VASCULAR CHANGES OF INFLAMMATION

TLDR
It is concluded that vasodilatation is the result of the release of arachidonate, which is subsequently converted to either PGE2 or PGI2, which regulate the plasma exudation induced by independently‐released vascular permeability‐increasing mediators.

Prostaglandin on cutaneous vasculature.

TLDR
In patients with atopic dermatitis PGE1 appears to have a vasodilatory effect in contrast to other pharmacological agents which have little or paradoxical effect.