In recurrent calcium stone formers interfering factors or changes in receptor sensitivity may alter the interrelationships among calcium-regulating hormones, and hormonal behavior often does not fit with the theoretical assumptions. The vitamin D system appears to have the most important metabolic and clinical effects. Abnormal up-regulation of the synthesis of calcitriol and the consequent parathyroid hormone (PTH) suppression can induce hypercalciuria. Consequently, the hypocalciuric effect of thiazide would be caused by an enhanced response to PTH and by a reduction in 1,25(OH)2-vit D. A negative role of vitamin D on the skeleton has been observed in the presence of a negative calcium balance. Moreover, vitamin D also plays a role in urine oxalate excretion. PTH seems not to be directly stimulated in hypercalciuria and recurrent calcium nephrolithiasis, and patients with hyperparathyroidism and recurrent calcium nephrolithiasis show a similar degree of bone demineralization, irrespective of the presence of absence of the so-called 'primary hyperparathyroidism.' Calcitonin plays a contributory role in the pathogenesis of recurrent calcium nephrolithiasis that seems to be strictly related to dietary calcium intake. A higher sensitivity of thyroid C cells, particularly in absorptive hypercalciuric patients, could be related to the pathogenesis of hypercalciuria and contribute to its persistence.