Caffeine self-administration, withdrawal, and adverse effects among coffee drinkers.

  title={Caffeine self-administration, withdrawal, and adverse effects among coffee drinkers.},
  author={J R Hughes and Stephen T. Higgins and Warren K. Bickel and William K. Hunt and James W. Fenwick and Suzy B Gulliver and G C Mireault},
  journal={Archives of general psychiatry},
  volume={48 7},
Twenty-two coffee drinkers (three to seven cups per day) underwent repeated double-blind trials to test for caffeine self-administration, withdrawal, and adverse effects. Each trial consisted first of a randomized crossover period of 1 day of decaffeinated coffee and 1 day of caffeinated coffee (100 mg) to assess withdrawal and adverse effects of caffeine. Next, subjects were given 2 days of concurrent access to the two coffees. The relative use of the two coffees was used to assess caffeine… CONTINUE READING

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