Caffeine-induced impairment of insulin action but not insulin signaling in human skeletal muscle is reduced by exercise.

@article{Thong2002CaffeineinducedIO,
  title={Caffeine-induced impairment of insulin action but not insulin signaling in human skeletal muscle is reduced by exercise.},
  author={Farah S. L. Thong and Wim Derave and Bente Kiens and Terry E. Graham and Birgitte Urs{\o} and J{\o}rgen F. P. Wojtaszewski and Bo Falck Hansen and Erik Arne Richter},
  journal={Diabetes},
  year={2002},
  volume={51 3},
  pages={
          583-90
        }
}
We investigated the effects of caffeine ingestion on skeletal muscle glucose uptake, glycogen synthase (GS) activity, and insulin signaling intermediates during a 100-min euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic (100 microU/ml) clamp. On two occasions, seven men performed 1-h one-legged knee extensor exercise at 3 h before the clamp. Caffeine (5 mg/kg) or placebo was administered in a randomized, double-blind fashion 1 h before the clamp. During the clamp, whole-body glucose disposal was reduced (P < 0.05… 
Caffeine-induced impairment of glucose tolerance is abolished by beta-adrenergic receptor blockade in humans.
TLDR
The data suggest that the insulin antagonistic effects of caffeine in vivo are mediated by elevated epinephrine rather than by peripheral AR antagonism, which is commonly attributed to adenosine receptor (AR) antagonism in skeletal muscle.
Caffeine increases exogenous carbohydrate oxidation during exercise.
TLDR
Compared with glucose alone, 5 mg x kg(-1) x h (-1) of caffeine coingested with glucose increases exogenous CHO oxidation, possibly as a result of an enhanced intestinal absorption.
Caffeine ingestion increases the insulin response to an oral-glucose-tolerance test in obese men before and after weight loss.
TLDR
A nutrition and exercise intervention improved, whereas caffeine ingestion impaired, insulin-glucose homeostasis in obese men, consistent with previous findings that caffeine ingestion contributes to insulin resistance.
Exercise partially reverses the inhibitory effect of caffeine on liver gluconeogenesis in type 1 diabetic rats with hypoglycemia.
TLDR
Improved hypoglycemia with caffeine or exercise cannot be explained by their actions on liver gluconeogenesis, and such association in diabetic patients should be avoided during the period of hyperinsulinemia due to the risk of severe hypglycemia.
Caffeine ingestion is associated with reductions in glucose uptake independent of obesity and type 2 diabetes before and after exercise training.
TLDR
Caffeine consumption is associated with a substantial reduction in insulin-mediated glucose uptake independent of obesity, type 2 diabetes, and chronic exercise.
Caffeine ingestion before an oral glucose tolerance test impairs blood glucose management in men with type 2 diabetes.
TLDR
Overall, despite elevated and prolonged proinsulin, C-peptide, and insulin responses after caffeine ingestion, blood glucose was also increased, suggesting an acute caffeine-induced impairment in blood glucose management in men with type 2 diabetes.
Caffeine ingestion impairs insulin sensitivity in a dose-dependent manner in both men and women.
TLDR
Results showed that caffeine ingestion disrupted insulin sensitivity in a dose-dependent fashion beginning at very low doses (0-1 mg·kg(-1) BW) in both healthy men and women.
Prior exercise increases basal and insulin-induced p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphorylation in human skeletal muscle.
TLDR
It is concluded that a physiological concentration of insulin causes modest but sustained activation of the p38 MAPK pathway in human skeletal muscle and the stimulatory effect of exercise on p38 phosphorylation is persistent for at least 3 h after exercise and remains evident during subsequent insulin stimulation.
Inhibitory mechanism of caffeine on insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in adipose cells.
TLDR
It is found that pre-treatment with caffeine inhibited the insulin-induced 2-deoxy-D-[1-(3)H]glucose uptake in a concentration-dependent manner in mouse preadipose MC-3T3-G2/PA6 cells differentiated into mature adipose cells, which may explain the ability of caffeine to decrease insulin sensitivity.
The effect of caffeine on glucose kinetics in humans – influence of adrenaline
TLDR
It is concluded that adrenaline alone does not account for the effects of caffeine and additional mechanisms must be involved.
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