Caffeine increases striatal dopamine D2/D3 receptor availability in the human brain

@article{Volkow2015CaffeineIS,
  title={Caffeine increases striatal dopamine D2/D3 receptor availability in the human brain},
  author={N. Volkow and G.-J. Wang and J. Logan and D. Alexoff and J. Fowler and P. Thanos and C. Wong and V. Casad{\'o} and S. Ferr{\'e} and D. Tomasi},
  journal={Translational Psychiatry},
  year={2015},
  volume={5}
}
Caffeine, the most widely consumed psychoactive substance in the world, is used to promote wakefulness and enhance alertness. Like other wake-promoting drugs (stimulants and modafinil), caffeine enhances dopamine (DA) signaling in the brain, which it does predominantly by antagonizing adenosine A2A receptors (A2AR). However, it is unclear if caffeine, at the doses consumed by humans, increases DA release or whether it modulates the functions of postsynaptic DA receptors through its interaction… Expand
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