Caffeine as a psychomotor stimulant: mechanism of action

  title={Caffeine as a psychomotor stimulant: mechanism of action},
  author={Gilberto Fisone and Anders Borgkvist and Alessandro Usiello},
  journal={Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences CMLS},
The popularity of caffeine as a psychoactive drug is due to its stimulant properties, which depend on its ability to reduce adenosine transmission in the brain. Adenosine A1 and A2A receptors are expressed in the basal ganglia, a group of structures involved in various aspects of motor control. Caffeine acts as an antagonist to both types of receptors. Increasing evidence indicates that the psychomotor stimulant effect of caffeine is generated by affecting a particular group of projection… 

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    Medicine and science in sports and exercise
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Evidence of caffeine's effects on the motor evoked potential, Hoffman reflex, self-sustained firing of the alpha motor neuron, and pain and force sensation are presented as well as limitations and considerations of using the drug in human neuromuscular studies are presented.

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A role for adenosine in a diverse array of neural phenomena, which include regulation of sleep and the level of arousal, neuroprotection, regulation of seizure susceptibility, locomotor effects, analgesia, mediation of the effects of ethanol, and chronic drug use, is established.

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