Caffeine and the central nervous system: mechanisms of action, biochemical, metabolic and psychostimulant effects

@article{Nehlig1992CaffeineAT,
  title={Caffeine and the central nervous system: mechanisms of action, biochemical, metabolic and psychostimulant effects},
  author={Astrid Nehlig and Jean-Luc Daval and G{\'e}rard Debry},
  journal={Brain Research Reviews},
  year={1992},
  volume={17},
  pages={139-170}
}

The Neurophysiology of Caffeine as a Central Nervous System Stimulant and the Resultant Effects on Cognitive Function

The majority of the studies reviewed suggest caffeine as having a significant positive effect on both short and long-term memory in adults and the elderly, and warrant continued research on the association of caffeine and the resultant effects on cognitive function.

The role of adenosine receptors in the central action of caffeine.

As yet, a coherent explanation of the acute and chronic effects of caffeine in terms of blockade of adenosine receptors has not emerged, and interactions between pathways subserved by A1 - and A2a-adcnosine receptors complicate attempts to interpret caffeine pharmacology.

Caffeine as a psychomotor stimulant: mechanism of action

The present review focuses on the effects of caffeine on striatal signal transduction and on their involvement in caffeine-mediated motor stimulation.

What do you see as the main priorities, Opportunities, and Challenges in Caffeine Research in the Next Five Years?

The study of the biochemical characteristics of the adenosine receptor heteromers and their specific neuronal expression during caffeine exposure will advance the understanding about the intriguing pharmacological properties of caffeine.

Caffeine and exercise: metabolism and performance.

Caffeine ingestion prior to prolonged exercise delays fatigue and can be associated with muscle glycogen sparing and elevated plasma epinephrine, but the underlying mechanisms are unknown.

Psychostimulant pharmacological profile of paraxanthine, the main metabolite of caffeine in humans

Are we dependent upon coffee and caffeine? A review on human and animal data

  • A. Nehlig
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Caffeine, Adenosine Receptors, and Synaptic

Although caffeine is a non-selective antagonist of adenosine receptors, it attenuates frequency-induced LTP in hippocampal slices in a manner similar to selective adenosines A2A receptor antagonists, which helps maintain the effects of low micromolar concentration of caffeine in aged animals.
...

References

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Effects of Caffeine on Monoamine Neurotransmitters in the Central and Peripheral Nervous System

This review focuses primarily on the effects of caffeine on the monoamine neurotransmitters, and on caffeine’s proposed effects on adenosine receptors, one possible route by which the methylxanthine exerts its actions on catecholamine neurons (as well as other cells).

Chronic caffeine or theophylline exposure reduces gamma-aminobutyric acid/benzodiazepine receptor site interactions.

The finding that chronic exposure of embryonic brain neurons to caffeine or theophylline reduces the ability of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) to potentiate the binding of [3H]flunitrazepam to the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor is reported.

Neuroendocrine Effects of Caffeine in Rat and Man

The evidence that caffeine consumption can affect the brain’s third output channel, neuroendocrine secretion, in experimental animals and in human subjects is considered.

Phenylalanine Inhibits Caffeine-induced Increase in Brain Serotonin Concentrations in Rats

It is considered that, when rats received glucose, insulin facilitates protein synthesis in peripheral tissues, decreases the concentrations of plasma LNAA, increases the plasma tryptophan ratio, and facilitates tryPTophan uptake across the blood-brain barrier.
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