Caffeine and Ephedrine

  title={Caffeine and Ephedrine},
  author={Faidon Magkos and Stavros A. Kavouras},
  journal={Sports Medicine},
Preparations containing caffeine and ephedrine have become increasingly popular among sportspersons in recent years as a means to enhance athletic performance. This is due to a slowly accumulating body of evidence suggesting that combination of the two drugs may be more efficacious than each one alone. Caffeine is a compound with documented ergogenicity in various exercise modalities, while ephedrine and related alkaloids have not been shown, as yet, to result in any significant performance… 

Ephedra increases VO2, impairs thermoregulation and cardiovascular function, but does not enhance exercise performance

The horse was used to examine the acute effects of ephedra (Ma Huang) to investigate on markers of performance as well as effects on cardiovascular function and thermoregulation during acute exercise.

Dose effect of caffeine on testosterone and cortisol responses to resistance exercise.

Caffeine has some potential to benefit training outcomes via the anabolic effects of the increase in testosterone concentration, but this benefit might be counteracted by the opposing catabolic effects in cortisol and resultant decline in the testosterone:cortisol ratio.

Ergogenic, metabolic, and perceptual effects of low doses of caffeine

In conclusion, low doses of caffeine do not affect cycling performance or perceptual responses to exercise, and athletes seeking performance benefit should ingest larger doses for which advantageous ergogenic and perceptual effects have been established.

Caffeine and Anaerobic Performance

Recent studies incorporating trained subjects and paradigms specific to intermittent sports activity support the notion that caffeine is ergogenic to an extent with anaerobic exercise, and suggest that caffeine stimulates the CNS, which could potentially have favourable effects on negating decreased firing rates of motor units and possibly produce a more sustainable and forceful muscle contraction.

Involvement of Cardiorespiratory Capacity on the Acute Effects of Caffeine on Autonomic Recovery

The acute effects of caffeine on heart rate (HR) autonomic control recovery following moderate aerobic exercise in males with different cardiorespiratory capacities was evaluated.

The Effects of Caffeine on Ventilation and Pulmonary Function During Exercise: An Often-Overlooked Response

Although an upper urinary concentration limit exists for caffeine with international sports doping control agencies, caffeine's universal accessibility in the marketplace has resulted in its daily use being increasingly more socially acceptable as an ergogenic substance for sport and exercise.

Performance-enhancing drugs, supplements and the athlete's heart : performance-enhancing and the heart

Clinicians should be aware of the problems that such drug use can engender, and be sensitive to the possibilities of such abuse in caring for athletes and young patients, particularly in those presenting with unusual or unanticipated cardiovascular signs and symptoms.

Energy Drinks: Ergolytic or Ergogenic?

It was determined that energy drinks lowered estimated VO2max while elevating RPP and recovery DBP and rate pressure product at rest and during exercise.


It is indicated that caffeine intake at recommended levels is not associated with improved performance in proffesional level cyclist and significant differences between sub-elite and elite cyclists are shown.

Effect of caffeine supplementation on the extracellular heat shock protein 72 response to exercise.

Caffeine supplementation and exercise was associated with a greater eHSP72 response than exercise alone, and a greater epinephrine response to exercise in Caff, whereas there was a significant increase in norepinephrine and cortisol, with no intertrial differences.



Caffeine, coffee and ephedrine: impact on exercise performance and metabolism.

  • T. Graham
  • Medicine
    Canadian journal of applied physiology = Revue canadienne de physiologie appliquee
  • 2001
This paper addresses areas where there is controversy regarding caffeine as an ergogenic aid and also identifies topics that have not been adequately addressed. It is clear that caffeine, in moderate

Caffeine and Endurance Performance

A review of the literature suggests that caffeine at doses of approximately 6 mg/kg is not of ergogenic benefit to high intensity exercise performance, but similar doses are ergogenic in endurance exercise performance.

Effect of caffeine and ephedrine ingestion on anaerobic exercise performance.

The improvement in anaerobic exercise performance is likely a result of both stimulation of the CNS by E and skeletal muscle by C.

Caffeine and exercise: metabolism and performance.

Caffeine ingestion prior to prolonged exercise delays fatigue and can be associated with muscle glycogen sparing and elevated plasma epinephrine, but the underlying mechanisms are unknown.

Caffeine and exercise.

  • S. Paluska
  • Medicine
    Current sports medicine reports
  • 2003
Caffeine is the most commonly consumed drug in the world, and athletes frequently use it as an ergogenic aid. It improves performance and endurance during prolonged, exhaustive exercise. To a lesser

Caffeine Use in Sports, Pharmacokinetics in Man, and Cellular Mechanisms of Action

Evidence from in vitro studies provides a wealth of different cellular actions that could potentially contribute to the observed effects of caffeine in humans in vivo, although a variable degree of contribution cannot be readily discounted on the basis of experimental data.

Effect of ingesting caffeine and ephedrine on 10-km run performance.

The previously seen additive nature of E and C was not evident in this study, with the primary ergogenic effect being attributed to E.

Caffeine and performance.

  • L. Spriet
  • Medicine
    International journal of sport nutrition
  • 1995
Caffeine ingestion prior to exercise increases performance during prolonged endurance exercise and short-term intense exercise lasting approximately 5 min in the laboratory and does not appear to enhance performance during incremental exercise tests lasting 8-20 min and during sprinting lasting less than 90 s, although research examining sprinting is rare.

Thermogenic, metabolic, and cardiovascular responses to ephedrine and caffeine in man.

  • A. AstrupS. Toubro
  • Medicine, Biology
    International journal of obesity and related metabolic disorders : journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
  • 1993
The hemodynamic and side effects to E+C are transient during chronic treatment, while the effect on energy expenditure persists, and the compound also possesses repartitioning properties, which may be useful in the treatment of obesity.

Effects of ephedrine, caffeine, and their combination on muscular endurance.

It was concluded that acute ingestion of C+E and E increases muscular endurance during the first set of traditional resistance-training exercise and was attributed primarily to the effects of E.