Caffeine, carnitine and choline supplementation of rats decreases body fat and serum leptin concentration as does exercise.

@article{Hongu2000CaffeineCA,
  title={Caffeine, carnitine and choline supplementation of rats decreases body fat and serum leptin concentration as does exercise.},
  author={Nobuko Hongu and Dileep S. Sachan},
  journal={The Journal of nutrition},
  year={2000},
  volume={130 2},
  pages={152-7}
}
The effect of a combination of caffeine, carnitine and choline with or without exercise on changes in body weight, fat pad mass, serum leptin concentration and metabolic indices was determined in 20 male, 7-wk-old Sprague-Dawley rats. They were given free access to a nonpurified diet without or with caffeine, carnitine and choline at concentrations of 0.1, 5 and 11.5 g/kg diet, respectively. In a 2x2 factorial design, one-half of each dietary group was exercised, and the other half was… CONTINUE READING
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