Calcium-induced calcium release in skeletal muscle.
- Makoto Endo
- Physiological reviews
Characterization of the putative Ca2+-gated Ca2+ channel of sarcoplasmic reticulum, which is thought to mediate Ca2+-induced Ca2+ release, was carried out in order to elucidate the mechanism of Ca2+-induced Ca2+ release. Heavy and light fractions of fragmented sarcoplasmic reticulum isolated from rabbit skeletal muscle were loaded passively with Ca2+, and then passive Ca2+ efflux was measured under various conditions. The fast phase of the Ca2+ efflux depended on the extravesicular free Ca2+ concentration and was assigned to the Ca2+ efflux through the Ca2+-gated Ca2+ channel. Vesicles with the Ca2+-gated Ca2+ channels comprised about 85% of the heavy fraction and about 40% of the light fraction. The amount of Ca2+ loaded in FSR was found to be much larger than that estimated on the basis of vesicle inner volume and the equilibration of intravesicular with extravesicular Ca2+, indicating Ca2+ binding inside FSR. Taking this fact into account, the Ca2+ efflux curve was quantitatively analyzed and the dependence of the Ca2+ efflux rate constant on the extravesicular free Ca2+ concentration was determined. The Ca2+ efflux was maximal, with the rate constant of 0.75 s-1, when the extravesicular free Ca2+ was at 3 microM. Caffeine increased the affinity for Ca2+ of Ca2+-binding sites for opening the channel with only a slight change in the maximum rate of Ca2+ efflux. Mg2+ inhibited the Ca2+ binding to the sites for opening the channel while procaine seemed to inhibit the Ca2+ efflux by blocking the ionophore moiety of the channel.