author={Bohdan J Soltys and David William Andrews and Ronald Jemmerson and Radhey S. Gupta},
  journal={Cell Biology International},
We used quantitative immunogold electron microscopy to evaluate the subcellular distribution of cytochrome‐c in normal rat tissues, employing a wide variety of monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies against mammalian cytochrome‐c. Immunogold labeling of tissues embedded in the acrylic resin LR Gold shows highly specific labeling of mitochondria in all tissues examined, including adrenal gland, cerebellum, cerebral cortex, heart, kidney, liver, pituitary, pancreas, skeletal muscle, spleen and… 

Localization of mitochondrial DNA encoded cytochrome c oxidase subunits I and II in rat pancreatic zymogen granules and pituitary growth hormone granules

The presence of mit-DNA encoded COX I and COX II in extramitochondrial compartments, provides strong evidence that proteins can exit, or are exported, from the mitochondria.

Immunogold localization of mitochondrial aspartate aminotransferase in mitochondria and on the cell surface in normal rat tissues.

These findings support the previous identification of mAspAT as both a mitochondrial enzyme and a plasma membrane protein and suggest that in accordance with its established role in other cells and tissues, the surface-located mAsPAT in kidney and endothelial cells is involved in the fatty acid transport process.

Immunoelectron microscopy provides evidence for the presence of mitochondrial heat shock 10-kDa protein (chaperonin 10) in red blood cells and a variety of secretory granules

Similar to a number of other recently described mitochondrial proteins, Hsp10 is also found at a variety of specific extramitochondrial sites in normal rat tissue, which raises important questions as to how these mitochondrial proteins are translocated to other compartments and their possible function(s) at these sites.

Localization of P32 protein (gC1q-R) in mitochondria and at specific extramitochondrial locations in normal tissues

Evidence is provided that P32 (gC1q-R) is a mitochondrial protein that also localizes outside mitochondria in certain cells and tissues under normal physiological conditions.

Subcellular localization of fumarase in mammalian cells and tissues

Evidence is provided that fumarase in mammalian cells/tissues is mainly localized in mitochondria and significant amounts of this protein are not present in the cytosol and these studies reveal that in certain tissues, in addition to mitochondria, this protein is also present at specific extramitochondrial sites.

Modulation of rat pituitary growth hormone by 670 nm light.

Cell surface protein detection with immunogold labelling in ESEM: Optimisation of the method and semi‐quantitative analysis

This work uses a combination of immunogold labelling (IGL) and environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM) to detect the presence of a protein on the cell surface, involved in a large number of cell physiological and pathological processes.

Resveratrol engages selective apoptotic signals in gastric adenocarcinoma cells.

The findings indicate that even within a specific cancer the intracellular apoptotic signals engaged by resveratrol are cell type dependent and suggest that such differences may be related to differentiation or lack of differentiation of these cells.

In Vitro Synthesis of Oleoylglycine by Cytochrome c Points to a Novel Pathway for the Production of Lipid Signaling Molecules*

The ability of cytochrome c to catalyze the formation of oleoylglycine experimentally indicates the potential importance of cy tochrome c as a novel mechanism for the generation of long chain fatty acyl glycine messengers in vivo.

Post-Translational Modifications of Cytochrome c in Cell Life and Disease

This work shows how protein post-translational modifications can alter cytochrome c structure and functionality, thus emerging as a control mechanism of cell metabolism but also as a key element in development and prevention of pathologies.



Localization of Mitochondrial 60-kD Heat Shock Chaperonin Protein (Hsp60) in Pituitary Growth Hormone Secretory Granules and Pancreatic Zymogen Granules

Findings raise interesting questions concerning translocation mechanisms and the cellular roles of Hsp60, including the morphological localization results in pancreatic acinar cells.

Immunoelectron microscopic localization of testicular and somatic cytochromes c in the seminiferous epithelium of the rat.

The presence of the holoprotein and apoprotein immunoprobes within the chromatoid bodies of spermatocytes and s permatids was an interesting observation that raises questions regarding the precise location of the synthesis of cytochromes c in sperMatogenic cells.

Localization of P32 protein (gC1q-R) in mitochondria and at specific extramitochondrial locations in normal tissues

Evidence is provided that P32 (gC1q-R) is a mitochondrial protein that also localizes outside mitochondria in certain cells and tissues under normal physiological conditions.

Immunoelectron microscopic localization of the 60-kDa heat shock chaperonin protein (Hsp60) in mammalian cells.

The subcellular distribution of the 60-kDa heat shock protein (Hsp60) was examined in a variety of mammalian cells and tissues by immunogold electron microscopy employing six different monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies that are specific for Hsp60, providing evidence that at least partial mitochondrial import of HSp60 is necessary for its maturation.

Immunoelectron microscopy provides evidence that tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated protein 1 (TRAP-1) is a mitochondrial protein which also localizes at specific extramitochondrial sites.

The localization of this protein at specific extramitochondrial sites raises interesting and fundamental questions regarding the possible mechanisms by which these proteins are translocated to such sites.

Expression of Carbonic Anhydrase V in Pancreatic Beta Cells Suggests Role for Mitochondrial Carbonic Anhydrase in Insulin Secretion*

The CA inhibitor acetazolamide was found to be a strong inhibitor of glucose-stimulated insulin secretion by isolated rat pancreatic islets, consistent with the hypothesis that CA-V may be functionally linked to the regulation of insulin secretion.

Sequence Requirements for Mitochondrial Import of Yeast Cytochrome c(*)

A minimum length of polypeptide chain at the extreme amino terminus of cytochrome c, rather than any specific sequence element in this region, appears to be required for efficient mitochondrial import.

A conformational change in cytochrome c of apoptotic and necrotic cells is detected by monoclonal antibody binding and mimicked by association of the native antigen with synthetic phospholipid vesicles.

By flow cytometry, a conformational change in mouse cytochrome c (cyt c) of apoptotic and necrotic T hybridoma cells was detected using a monoclonal antibody (mAb) that recognizes the region around


The finding of hsp60 on the cell surface of mammalian cells may signify chaperone involvement in surface functions, and backscattered electron imaging provided definitive identification of the gold markers.