The use of calcineurin inhibitors (CNIs) and vitamin D deficiency may contribute to the pathogenesis of post-transplant bone disease. CNIs and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D₃ (1,25(OH)2D3) are substrates of the drug-metabolizing enzyme CYP3A4. This review summarizes the indications for the use of activated vitamin D analogs in post-transplant care and the current knowledge on the impact of CNIs on bone. We searched for clinical evidence of the interaction between CNIs and 1,25(OH)2D3. We also provide an overview of the literature on the interplay between vitamin D metabolism and CYP3A4 in experimental and clinical settings and discuss its possible implications for solid organ transplant recipients. In conclusion, there is a body of evidence on the interplay between vitamin D and the drug-metabolizing enzyme CYP3A4, which may have therapeutic implications.The Pharmacogenomics Journal advance online publication, 18 April 2017; doi:10.1038/tpj.2017.15.