Pharmacokinetic and Pharmacodynamic Responses to Clopidogrel: Evidences and Perspectives
BACKGROUND Calcium-channel blockers (CCBs) inhibit the CYP3A4 enzyme, which is involved in clopidogrel activation. Studies have shown conflicting results regarding the effect of concomitant CCB administration on clopidogrel response. We investigated the relationship between CYP3A4 genotype and the inhibitory effect of CCBs on clopidogrel response. METHODS AND RESULTS Clopidogrel on-treatment platelet reactivity (OPR) was measured and CYP3A4 (IVS10+12G>A) genotyped in 1,247 consecutive patients with drug-eluting stent implantation. The mean OPR was 231±83 (P2Y12 reaction units: PRU). In total, 332 (26.6%) CCB users had higher OPR compared with 915 (73.4%) non-CCB users (245±84 vs. 227±83 PRU, P=0.001). The distribution of CYP3A4 (IVS10+12G>A) genotype was 63.6%, 32.6% and 3.8% for GG, GA and AA genotypes, respectively. After adjustment for possible confounding factors, the number of A-alleles was associated with increased vulnerability to CCB use (effect of CCB use ΔPRU: +8 PRU, P=0.210, +24 PRU, P=0.012, +50 PRU, P=0.025, for patients with 0, 1, and 2 A-alleles, respectively, +24 PRU, P=0.005 for GA/AA genotypes). Furthermore, only in the GA/AA-genotype did CCB use result in a significantly increased risk for high-OPR (odds ratio 1.84, 95% confidence interval 1.15-2.92, P=0.010). CONCLUSIONS CCB use is associated with increased OPR. The number of CYP3A4 (IVS10+12G>A) A-alleles may be associated with an increased vulnerability to the effects of CCBs on clopidogrel response variation.